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Ujian Pap Smear

Menurut Suhaimi (2000), terdapat tiga gejala kesihatan yang dialami oleh wanita yang berusia 40 tahun ke atas menghadapi risiko menghidapi kanser seperti kanser payu dara dan kanser serviks. Kanser bukan penamat kehidupan kepada mereka yang menghidapinya kerana terdapat rawatan susulan untuk mengubatinya. Wanita adalah digalakkan mengambil inisiatif untuk melakukan pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear kerana semua orang menghadapi risiko yang sama dalam menghidapi kanser.

Menurut Mustapha (dipetik dari New Straits Time, 2008), jangkaan 80% wanita akan mendapat jangkitan HPV dan 50% daripada jumlah tersebut berkemungkinan bertukar menjadi kanser serviks. Wanita menghadapi risiko ini sebaik sahaja mereka memulakan aktiviti  seksual. Apabila seseorang wanita mendapat jangkitan HPV, ia mengambil tempoh masa antara 5 hingga 10 tahun bertukar menjadi kanser serviks. Sekiranya wanita menjalankan pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear secara berkala, maka sel-sel kanser tersebut dapat dikesan pada peringkat awal.

Kanser serviks boleh dicegah melalui ujian saringan Pap Smear yang teratur dan rawatan pada peringkat pra-malignant. Melalui sistem saringan yang teratur didapati berkesan dalam mengurangkan kematian akibat kanser serviks. Bagi negara-negara maju seperti England dan Denmark, pengliputan calitan pap adalah melebihi 80% manakala di negara-negara membangun seperti Malaysia adalah lebih rendah dan berbeza antara negara-negara dan kawasan dalam sesuatu negara tersebut. Ini adalah akibat daripada perbezaan dari segi pengetahuan umum mengenai calitan pap, kebudayaan, kepercayaan, tahap sosio-ekonomi, kemudahan kesihatan dan keadaan geografi. Faktor-faktor ini telah menyumbang kepada perbezaan kes-kes wanita yang menghidapi kanser serviks yang ketara di antara negara maju dan yang sedang membangun.

Sensitiviti calitan pap adalah 40 hingga 70 % dan negatif palsu yang boleh diterima adalah 15 hingga 25%. Sebab-sebab utama keputusan negatif palsu disebabkan oleh kaedah penyediaan pensampelan slaid dan penelitian slaid yang kurang tepat. Kesahan calitan pap adalah 99%, walau bagaimanapun positif palsu boleh berlaku. Reliabiliti calitan pap juga bergantung kepada kemahiran pakar perubatan yang mengambil, menyedia dan meneliti smear tersebut.

Pada tahun 2003, American College of Obstetric and Gyneacology mencadangkan wanita yang mula mempunyai hubungan seksual yang aktif digalakkan melakukan saringan kanser pangkal rahim pada setiap tahun sehingga umur 35 tahun dan selepas itu setiap 3 tahun sekali sekiranya semua keputusan saringan yang didapati negatif. Bagi wanita Malaysia, ujian saringan Pap Smear dicadangkan setiap tahun untuk 2 tahun pada permulaannya dan 3 tahun sekali selepas itu. Keutamaan bagi melakukan calitan pap diberikan kepada mereka yang berumur 35 ke atas dan aktif seksual, dikenal pasti menghidapi penyakit kelamin, mempunyai lebih daripada 5 orang anak, menggunakan kaedah pencegahan hamil lebih daripada 5 tahun dan mereka yang baru menyertai sistem saringan ini.

Menurut ulasan dari pihak perubatan, sebab utama kanser serviks mengakibatkan kematian ialah kegagalan individu menjalankan ujian saringan mengikut tempoh yang ditetapkan oleh pusat kesihatan. (Zapka et al., 2004) Sesetengah organisasi pengurusan kesihatan menyediakan nota perubatan elektronik supaya orang awam boleh hadir untuk membuat ujian saringan atau mendapatkan rawatan mengikuti jadual yang ditetapkan secara berterusan. (Brailer, 2005; Marshall dan Chin, 1998) Terdapat organisasi pengurusan kesihatan meningkatkan keberkesanan pengurusan kesihatan dengan menjalankan sistem komunikasi rangkaian; sistem mesej automatik; latihan; dan mekanisme untuk sokongan kejuruteraan supaya masyarakat boleh mendapatkan pemeriksaan atau rawatan sepanjang masa. (Epstein dan Street, 2007; Nelson dan Ball, 2004). Terdapat beberapa pusat penjagaan kesihatan telah mula menggunakan sistem aktif untuk membuat rekod kesihatan peribadi yang membolehkan pesakit akses dan membuat kawalan serta menjalankan amalan perilaku untuk mengawal kesihatan peribadi berdasarkan maklumat yang disediakan oleh pusat penjagaan kesihatan. (Brennan, Downs, Casper dan Kenron, 2007; Morales Rodriguez, Casper dan Brennan, 2007)

Menurut Lum (dipetik dari The Star, 2009), keberkesanan ujian saringan Pap Smear yang pertama dibuktikan oleh Scandinavia. Ini dibuktikan menerusi penurunan kadar kematian antara tahun 1965 hingga tahun 1982. Penurunan sebanyak 80% dalam kadar kematian di Iceland kerana keberkesanan pelaksanaan program pemerikasaan saringan Pap Smear yang membuat liputan kawasan yang luas di Iceland. Kadar kematian di Denmark turut menurun, sebanyak 40% penduduk wanita yang menjalankan pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear. Pelaksanaan Program Pemeriksaan Saringan Pap Smear yang dijalankan di Kanada, United Kingdom, Australia dan New Zealand turut berjaya menurunkan kadar kematian yang disebabkan oleh kanser serviks. Pendedahan pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear untuk mengurangkan risiko menghidapi kanser serviks di United Kingdom tertumpu kepada wanita yang berada dalam lingkungan umur antara 35 tahun hingga 64 tahun. Menurut Saunthari (dipetik dari The Star, 2008), kes penghidap kanser serviks di Amerika Syarikat menurun sebanyak 70% kerana wanita mula menjalankan pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear secara berkala.

Tinjauan Kementerian Kesihatan pada tahun 2006 menunjukkan bahawa hanya 43% wanita Malaysia yang berumur 18 tahun ke atas pernah menjalani pemeriksaan  saringan Pap Smear. Ini adalah salah satu sebab kebanykan pesakit kanser serviks di negara ini lewat untuk rawatan. Menurut pakar perubatan, jika kanser ini dikesan dan dirawat awal, kadar sembuhnya adalah lebih tinggi dan lebih baik berbanding dengan mereka yang datang lewat untuk rawatan. Sekiranya mereka datang awal untuk rawatan, sebelum kanser tersebut merebak di tubuh badan mereka, lebih daripda 90% pesakit masih hidup selepas 5 tahun. Manakala jika pesakit datang lewat untuk rawatan, kurang daripda 15% masih hidup selepas 5 tahun.

Prihatin terhadap isu tersebut, Program Saringan Pap Smear dijalankan sejak 1960an lagi. Pada tahun 1981, program ini mula diperkenalkan kepada semua penerima perancang keluarga dan kini diperluaskan kepada wanita berusia di antara umur 20 hingga 65 tahun. Agensi-agensi yang terlibat dalam menyediakan perkhidmatan saringan di Malaysia ialah Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara (LPPKN), hospital universiti dan pihak swasta (hospital dan klinik swasta), hospital tentera serta badan bukan kerajaan seperti Persekutuan Persatuan Perancang Keluarga Malaysia (PPPLM). Pada tahun 2001, Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) telah menjalani pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear secara percuma untuk 389,154 orang wanita manakala dalam sektor swasta, LPPKN, Pertubuhan Perancangan Keluarga dan hospital swasta menjalani saringan untuk 318,682 orang. Namun begitu, perangkaan ini hanya mewakili 12% wanita Malaysia yang berumur diantara 20 dan 65 tahun.

 

Mohd Rushadan (2008) menyatakan serviks atau pangkal rahim, adalah pintu keluar bagi rahim. Serviks merupakan organ reproduktif yang sangat penting kerana ia bukan saja menentukan kejayaan proses kelahiran bayi tetapi serviks dikenal pasti sebagai organ reproduktif yang paling terdedah kepada pelbagai masalah kesihatan. Masalah kesihatan yang paling utama ialah kanser serviks. Sebelum terjadinya kanser serviks, sel-sel di kulit serviks akan melalui beberapa siri perubahan di mana sel-sel tersebut menjadi tidak normal dari segi saiz, rupa bentuk dan juga susunan sel. Antara ciri-ciri kelainan yang terdapat pada sel-sel tersebut ialah saiz nukleus yang lebih besar, warna nukleus yang lebih hitam pekat dan terdapatnya proses pembiakan yang di luar kawalan. Sel-sel yang tidak normal ini bermula dari dalam lapisan kulit serviks. Punca perubahan sel-sel di bahagian kulit serviks ini adalah akibat jangkitan sejenis virus yang dinamakan HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). HPV ialah sejenis virus yang sangat kecil dan mempunyai DNA (baka) yang berbentuk bulat. Terdapat lebih daripada 100 jenis HPV berdasarkan kepada susunan gen (baka) dalam DNA mereka. Ia boleh dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan besar iaitu HPV berisiko rendah dan HPV berisiko tinggi. Virus berisiko rendah selalunya dikaitkan dengan penyakit kutil yang boleh terjadi di mana-mana anggota badan termasuk tapak kali, tapak tangan, bibir dan lain-lain. Virus berisiko tinggi pula ialah virus yang menjadi punca prakanser dan kanser pada bahagian genitalia seperti prakanser dan kanser serviks, vulva dan faraj. Virus berisiko tinggi ini berkeupayaan memasuki sel-sel kulit serviks dan melepaskan DNA mereka untuk bercantum dengan DNA sel-sel kulit serviks. Percantuman kedua-dua DNA ini mencetuskan satu proses yang kompleks yang merencat sejenis protein yang dinamakan p53. P53 ini adalah protein yang dikenali sebagai protein perencat kanser dan protein p53 ini bertanggungjawab merencat kejadian kanser. Akibat daripada perencatan protein p53 ini, maka pembiakan sel-sel akan menjadi tidak normal dan di luar kawalan badan manusia. Akibat terakhir daripada proses ini ialah terjadinya sel-sel kanser. Prakanser serviks merujuk kepada peringkat di mana sel-sel yang tidak normal ini masih berada di dalam lapisan kulit serviks dan belum lagi merebak keluar. Terdapat dua prasyarat untuk terjadinya prakanser dan kanser serviks selepas dijangkit HPV iaitu, jangkitan oleh HPV berisiko tinggi dan jangkitan yang berpanjangan sekurang-kurangnya selama 12 bulan. Peringkat prakanser ini jika tidak dikesan dan dirawat boleh bertukar menjadi kanser.

Faktor penyumbang utama kepada pembentukan kanser ini ialah jangkitan HPV (Human PapillomaVirus). HPV ialah papilomavirus yang berjankit di kulit dan membrane mucus. Terdapat lebih daripada 100 jenis HPV tetapi hanya 40 jenis daripada jumlah tersebut merupakan HPV yang boleh berjangkit. Dalam 40 jenis HPV tersebut, sesetengah berada dalam tahap risiko rendah dan sesetangah berada dalam tahap risiko tinggi iaitu berpeluang membawa kepada kanser serviks. Kebanyakan HPV tidak akan menjadi simptom menghidapi kanser serviks kerana 90% daripada jumlah HPV tersebut akan sembuh dengan adanya keupayaan menentang virus di badan seseorang. Sekiranya jangkitan HPV berterusan ia boleh menyebabkan berlakunya perubahan kepada tisu di serviks dan sebahagian boleh menyebabkan tisu tersebut bertukar menjadi kanser. (dipetik dari The Star, 2009)

Faktor lain yang menyumbangkan kepada penghidapan kanser serviks ialah mempunyai tahap keupayaan menentang jangkitan HPV yang rendah (Lum, 2009), menjalankan kegiatan seksual pada usia muda (Saunthari, 2010 ; Lum, 2009), mempunyai pasangan seks yang ramai (Lum, 2009), tahap sosial ekonomi yang rendah (Lum, 2009), mengandung lima atau lebih kali (Lum, 2009), merokok (Saunthari, 2010 ; Lum, 2009), dan penggunaan pil pencegah kehamilan untuk tempoh yang lama (Saunthari, 2010).

Menurut pakar perundingan ginekologi-onkologi Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah iaitu Rushdan (dipetik dari The Star, 2008), remaja yang mempunyai lebih daripada seorang pasangan seks menghadapi risiko setinggi 99.9% berhadapan dengan HPV, iaitu penyebab kepada kanser serviks. Risiko berjangkit HPV dalam kalangan remaja adalah lebih tinggi kerana tahap sistem pengimunan dalam badan adalah rendah.

Raja Juhaidah (2009) menyatakan bahawa kanser serviks ialah kanser yang kerap terjadi dalam kalangan wanita kerana ia menyerang organ reproduksi. Kanser serviks terjadi apabila sel yang normal pada serviks (pangkal rahim) bertukar menjadi sel barah.

Siti Nurafiza (2010) kanser serviks atau kanser pangkal rahim terjadi apabila terdapat pertumbuhan sel yang tidak normal di dalam serviks. Serviks adalah bahagian pada pangkal uterus yang menghubungkan uterus atau rahim dengan vagina.

Tujuan kita berkomunikasi secara interpersonal adalah untuk mewujudkan identiti masing-masing. Peranan yang dimainkan dalam hubungan ini membantu kita dalam mewujudkan identiti sendiri dan perwatakan imej yang ditonjolkan secara umum. Mimik muka juga penting dalam interaksi hubungan interpersonal.

Komunikasi interpersonal dianggap sebagai suatu proses komunikasi yang amat unik. Ia berlaku apabila seseorang individu itu berkomunikasi dengan menggunakan mesej yang sama kepada orang yang lain pada masa yang sama. Di samping itu, komunikasi adalah proses memenuhi keperluan kesihatan dan fizik, keperluan identiti, keperluan sosial dan keperluan untuk mendapat maklumat. Komunikasi antara perseorangan ialah komunikasi yang melibatkan dua orang komunikator yang berinteraksi secara dua hala, serentak dan saling mempengaruhi.

Menurut Berko, Wolvin, Wolvin (1998), komunikasi  interpersonal ialah komunikasi yang berlaku di antara dua individu yang berusaha membina perhubungan. Komunikasi interpersonal boleh dibina melalui perbualan, temu bual dan perbincangan kumpulan kecil.

Adlers, Rosenfield dan Towne (1999), mendefinisikan komuikasi interpersonal sebagai suatu proses transaksi yang berterusan, melibatkan komunikator-komunikator daripada persekitaran yang sama ataupun berbeza dan mewujudkan hubungan melalui pertukaran mesej yang kebanyakannya dipengaruhi oleh gangguan atau halangan luaran, fisiologi dan psikologi.

Stewart & Lagon (1998) mendefinisikan komunikasi interpersonal dengan menghuraikan jenis-jenis komunikasi yang berlaku apabila seseorang itu terlibat dalam percakapan dan pendengaran yang menunjukkan kewujudan secara maksimum. Menurutnya, apabila komunikator memberi atau menerima atau bercakap atau mendengar dalam bentuk di mana mereka menitikberatkan keunikan, ketidaknilaian, tindak balas, pemikiran dan keupayaan bercakap dan dengan itu, komunikasi antara mereka dikatakan sebagai interpersonal.

Menurut Mulyana (2001) komunikasi interpersonal adalah komunikasi antara dua atau lebih orang secara bersemuka, yang membolehkan setiap orang mengetahui reaksi orang lain secara langsung, baik secara verbal ataupun nonverbal.

De Vito (2004) mengemukakan komunikasi interpersonal adalah komunikasi yang berlaku antara dua orang atau antara orang dalam kelompok kecil yang memiliki hubungan yang tidak boleh dipungkiri. Komunikasi interpersonal dapat terjadi antara anak dengan ayah, seorang pegawai dengan pegawai lainya, dua orang saudara, pensyarah dengan mahasiswa, kekasih dan sebagainya.

Menurut Rogers (dalam Mulyana, 2001) mendefinisikan komunikasi interpersonal merupakan komunikasi dari mulut ke mulut yang terjadi dalam interaksi bersemuka antara beberapa orang. Sedangkan Barnlund (dalam Wiryanto, 2006) komunikasi antara pribadi diertikan sebagai pertemuan antara dua, tiga, atau mungkin empat orang, yang terjadi secara spontan dan tidak berstruktur.

Komunikasi interpersonal ialah komunikasi diad di mana berlaku pertukaran maklumat antara dua atau lebih individu. Komunikasi interpersonal berperanan dalam perkongsian maklumat, penyelesaian masalah, pertelingkahan atau salah faham yang berlaku antara dua atau lebih individu. Ia boleh berlaku dalam pelbagai konteks sama ada secara formal atau tidak formal. Contoh dalam konteks tidak formal ialah interaksi dengan ibu bapa, kekasih, kanak-kanak atau  rakan sebaya manakala konteks formal ialah temu duga. (Seiler dan Beall, 2002)

 

Komunikasi berasal dari perkataan Latin iaitu “communicare” yang membawa maksud perkongsian. Komunikasi ialah proses perkongsian pandangan, idea dan perasaan antara satu sama lain dalam konteks yang mudah difahami oleh orang ramai (Cangara, 2002:18). “Communicare” berakar dari kata “communis” iaitu sama makna (Effendy, 1992:54). Dalam komunikasi, harus mengandungi kesamaan makna atau pengertian. Sekiranya tiada kesamaan makna antara komunikator maka, proses komunikasi tidak akan berlaku.

Sarjana komunikasi mendefenisikan komunikasi dari pelbagai perspektif, antaranya termasuk perspektif falsafah, sosiologi, dan psikologi. Menurut perspektif falsafah, komunikasi menekan kepada kesan proses komunikasi antara komunikator dan komunikan, dan bagaimana mereka menggunakan komunikasi untuk berhubungan dengan alam yang realiti (Rakhmat,1997). Menurut perspektif psikologi, Hovland, Janis, dan Kelly (dalam Rakhmat, 1997:3) mendefinisikan komunikasi sebagai ”the process by which an individual (the communicator) transmits stimulus (usually verbal) to modify the behavior of the other individuals (the audience).” Dengan kata lain, komunikasi adalah proses yang dilalui oleh seorang individu (komunikator) untuk menyampaikan stimulus (biasanya secara verbal) yang bertujuan untuk mengubah tingkah laku orang lain (komunikan). Lantas, Dance (1967) menyatakan bahawa komunikasi dalam kerangka psikologi dikaitkan dengan perlakuan komunikasi iaitu keupayaan seseorang untuk membentuk maklum balas secara verbal. Menurut perspektif sosiologi, Colin Cherry (1964) mendefinisikan komunikasi sebagai keupayaan individu untuk membentuk satu sistem sosial yang terdiri daripada individu yang menggunakan komunikasi verbal atau bukan verbal.

Edwin Neumann mendefinisikan komunikasi sebagai proses untuk mengubah kelompok manusia menjadi berfungsi (Rakhmat, 1997:8).

Bernard Berelson dan Garry A. Stainer (1978), komunikasi adalah penyampaian maklumat, gagasan, emosi, keterampian dan sebagainya dengan menggunakan lambang-lambang, kata-kata, gambar, bilangan, mimik muka, gerak-gerik atau bahasa tubuh, sikap, suara, tulisan, grafik, telegram, telefon, cetakan, dan apa saja yang merupakan penemuan mutakhir.

Berko, Wolvin and Wolvin (2007) menyatakan bahawa komunikasi adalah dinamik, berterusan, tidak dapat ditarik balik dan saling berkaitan. Komunikasi adalah proses yang dinamik kerana keadaan dalam proses komunikasi sentiasa berubah. Keadaan komunikasi sentiasa berubah disebabkan oleh sikap, tanggapan, perasaan dan emosi seseorang yang sentiasa berubah mengikut situasi dalam komunikasi. Komunikasi adalah berterusan kerana kita selalunya memproses idea dan informasi ia tidak berhenti sama ada seseorang tertidur atau bangun. Maklumat dan idea diproses melalui minda sama ada melalui mimpi, pandangan, idea dan ekspersi.

Menurut Sulaiman, Mohd Salleh dan Azlina (2002), komunikasi merupakan proses bagaimana maklumat ditukar dan difahami oleh dua atau lebih orang. Komunikasi merupakan satu proses pengaliran maklumat dan kefahaman yang bermula dengan niat, keinginan memindahkan maklumat kepada orang lain kerana komunikasi dapat membuat sistem menjadi dinamik dan menghubungkan sesuatu tujuan.

Peranan komunikator sangat penting dalam strategi komunikasi. Para ahli komunikasi cenderung bersependapat bahawa dalam proses melancarkan komunikasi yang lebih baik ialah dengan mengaplikasikan pendekatan yang “A-A Procedure” atau “From Attention to Action Procedure”. “A-A Procedure” adalah suatu proses yang disingkat daripada AIDDA iaitu “Attention”, “Interest”, “Desire”, “Decision” dan “Action”. Proses perubahan ialah kesan komunikasi melalui tahap-tahap tertentu yang bermula dengan membangkitkan perhatian. Apabila perhatian komunikan telah terbangkitkan maka, hendak disusul dengan keupayaan untuk membentuk minat, yang merupakan darjah yang lebih tinggi daripada perhatian. Minat adalah kelanjutan dari perhatian yang merupakan titik tolak bagi bentuknya keinginan untuk melakukan suatu kegiatan yang diharapkan komunikator. Dengan adanya keinginan pada diri komunikan, maka ia dilanjutkan dengan keputusan yang akhirnya mengalakkan komunikan untuk bertindak.

Selain melalui pendekatan di atas, seseorang komunikator harus mempunyai kemampuan diri untuk melakukan perubahan sikap, pendapat, dan tingkah laku. Rogers (1983) mengatakan kredibiliti adalah tingkat di mana komunikator dipersepsikan sebagai suatu kepercayaan dan kemampuan oleh penerima. Hovland (dalam Krech, 1982) penelitiannya mengatakan bahawa pesan yang disampaikan oleh komunikator yang tingkat kredibilitinya tinggi akan lebih banyak memberi pengaruh kepada perubahan sikap dalam penerimaan pesan daripada jika oleh komunikator yang tingkat kredibilitinya rendah. Rakhmat (1989) mengatakan dalam berkomunikasi yang berpengaruh terhadap komunikan bukan hanya apa yang disampaikan, tetapi juga keadaan komunikator secara keseluruhan. Jadi ketika suatu pesan disampaikan, komunikan tidak hanya mendengarkan apa yang dikatakan tetapi ia juga memperhatikan siapa yang mengatakan. Selanjutnya Tan (1981) mengatakan kredibilitas sumber terdiri dari dua unsur, iaitu keahlian dan kepercayaan. Keahlian diukur dengan sejauh mana komunikan menganggap komunikator mengetahui jawaban yang benar, sedangkan kepercayaan dioperasionalisasikan sebagai persepsi komunikan tentang sejauhmana komunikator bersikap tidak memihak dalam penyampaian pesan. Dari variabel kredibiliti dapat ditentukan dimensi-dimensinya iaitu : keahlian komunikator (kemampuan, kecerdasan, pengalaman, pengetahuan, dsb) dan kepercayaan komunikator (kejujuran, keikhlasan, keadilan, dsb). Demikan juga mengenai daya tarik adalah berkenaan dengan tingkat mana penerima melihat sumber sebagai seorang yang disenangi dalam bentuk peranan hubungannya yang memuaskan. Effendy (1983) mengatakan daya tarik adalah komunikator yang dapat menyamakan dirinya dengan orang lain, apakah ideologi, perasaan, dan sebagainya. Demikian juga Tan (1981) mengatakan daya tarik adalah diukur dengan kesamaan, familiaritas, dan kesukaan. Kesamaan meliputi pandangan, wawasan, idea, atau gagasan. Familiaritas meliputi empati, simpati, dan kedewasaan. Kesukaan meliputi frekuensi, ketepatan, keteladanan,dan kesopanan. Demikian mengenai faktor-faktor yang penting dimiliki oleh komunikator agar komunikasi yang dilancarkan dapat merubah sikap, pendapat, dan tingkah laku komunikan.

 

Laporan Pendaftaran Kanser Kebangsaan (2004) menunjukkan sebanyak 21,464 kes kanser dilaporkan pada tahun 2003 di Semenanjung Malaysia. Kadar penyakit kanser dalam kalangan lelaki adalah 97.4 per 100,000 penduduk manakala kadar penyakit kanser dalam kalangan wanita pula adalah 134.3 per 100,000 penduduk. Ini mennjukkan kadar menghidapi kanser dalam kalangan wanita di Malaysia adalah lebih tinggi berbanding dengan lelaki.

Sebanyak 500,000 kes baru kanser serviks dikenal pasti setiap tahun (Peto, et al., 2007). Menurut perangkaan yang dikeluarkan oleh Daftar Kanser Kebangasaan 2003, kanser serviks merupakan kanser kedua kerap dihidapi oleh wanita di Malaysia selepas kanser payudara. Ia menyumbangkan kira-kira 12% daripda keseluruhan kejadian kanser dalam kalangan wanita. Pada tahun 2002, terdapat kira-kira 17.8 kes dicatatkan bagi setiap 100,000 penduduk berbanding dengan negara maju seperti Amerika Syarikat iaitu hanya 5.5 kes bagi setiap 100,000 penduduk. Berbanding dengan negara lain, kejadian kanser serviks di Malaysia adalah lebih tinggi. Menurut Menteri Kesihatan Malaysia, Liow (2009), sejumlah 4057 kes kanser serviks telah dikenal pasti antara tahun 2003 hingga 2005. 7.9% (2000-3000 kes setiap tahun) dari semua kes kanser di hospital kerajaan terdiri daripada kanser serviks. Sebanyak 50% yang telah dikenal pasti menghidapi kanser serviks ialah wanita dalam lingkungan umur antara 35 tahun hingga 55 tahun. Wanita dalam lingkungan umur 50 hingga 69 tahun merupakan jumlah penghidap kanser serviks yang paling banyak.

Menurut Berita Kesihatan China, kajian menunjukan 25% hingga 30% penghidap berada dalam tahap kritikal ketika mengesan mereka menghidapi kanser serviks. Kajian yang dijalankan oleh Agensi Penyelidikan Antarabangsa menunjukkan lebih daripada 270,000 kes kanser serviks yang mengakibatkan kematian setiap tahun (dipetik dari The Star, 2008). Aljunid (dipetik dari The Star, 2009) menyatakan bahawa seramai 766 orang yang mati setiap tahun di Malaysia kerana menghidapi kanser serviks. Pernyataan ini turut disokong dengan kajian yang dijalankan oleh Glaxosmithkline Pharmaceutical Sdn. Bhd iaitu sebanyak 13% wanita di Malaysia yang menghidapi kanser serviks dan mereka merupakan golongan wanita yang berada dalam lingkungan umur antara 35 tahun hingga 45 tahun.

HPV vaksin merupakan suatu perubahan dalam bidang perubatan yang berpotensi untuk mengubah tahap kesihatan wanita dari segi pencegahan menghidapi kanser serviks. Pada tahun 2006, FDA (Food and Drug Administration) meluluskan pemvaksinan HPV yang pertama kepada perempuan berumur antara 9 hingga 26 tahun (Marko et al., 2007). Dengan wujudnya vaksin HPV yang dapat menghalang jenis HPV yang paling kerap mengakibatkan kanser serviks di seluruh dunia maka, ia diramalkan dapat menghalang ribuan kes kanser serviks di seluruh dunia (Harper, 2004) dan memberi sumbangan yang besar dalam bidang penjagaan kesihatan (Kulasingam dan Myers, 2003). Vaksin ini melindungi perempuan daripada menjangkit HPV 18 dan 18 iaitu virus yang dianggarkan memberi 70% penularan kepada kanser serviks dan HPV 6 dan 18 iaitu virus yang dianggarkan memberi 90% penularan kepada ketuat genital (Sloane, Karen, David, Elizabeth dan Terri, 2010). Vaksin HPV bukan menggantikan ujian Pap tetapi bertujuan untuk mengurangkan risiko menghidapi kanser serviks dan ketuat genital (Romanowski, 2010).

Terdapat lebih daripada 100 jenis virus HPV dan 40 jenis daripada jumlah tersebut boleh menjangkiti kawasan genital (Koustsky dan Kiviat, 1999). HPV genital merupakan jangkitan yang paling umum dijangkit menerusi hubungan seks dalam kalangan penduduk Amerika Syarikat (Weinstock, Berman & Cates, 2004). Majoriti jangkitan HPV akan hilang secara spontan tetapi jangkitan HPV yang berterusan akan menjadi prakanser. Kebanyakan kes kanser serviks disebabkan oleh HPV menerusi hubungan seks.(Persatuan Kanser Amerika, 2008; Molano et al., 2003) Kajian terhadap vaksin HPV yang diperkenalkan oleh Merck menunjukkan vaksin tersebut adalah hampir 100% berkesan bagi wanita yang tidak jangkit keempat-empat jenis virus HPV tersebut sebelum ini (Gardasil, 2006).

Deborah (2010) menyatakan jangkitan HPV merupakan jangkitan yang paling kerap dihidapi melalui hubungan seks. Lebih daripada 80% lelaki dan wanita akan mendapat jangkitan HPV dalam hidupnya. Majoriti jangkitan ini berlaku selepas hubungan seks. Kebanyakan individu yang mendapat jangkitan HPV tidak menunjukkan tanda yang jelas. Jangkitan HPV untuk tempoh 10 hingga 20 tahun akan menular menjadi kanser serviks. Untuk mencapai pencegahan daripada menghidapi kanser serviks maka, perempuan adalah digalakkan mendapatkan suntikan vaksin HPV sebelum aktif dalam hubungan seks.

Menurut tinjauan pengimunan kebangsaan remaja 2009 di Amerika Syarikat terhadap 20 000 kanak-kanak di antara umur 13 hingga 17 tahun menunjukkan terdapat peningkatan kepada 51%  bagi mereka yang mendapat sekurang-kurangnya satu suntikan vaksin HPV. Selain itu, peningkatan kepada 36% bagi mereka yang mendapat tiga dos suntikan vaksin HPV. Ini jelas menunjukkan semakin ramai remaja mendapat suntikan vaksin HPV di Amerika Syarikat.

Menurut Dr Saunthari (2010), pencegahan selalunya lebih baik berbanding rawatan apatah lagi dengan adanya suntikan pelalian bagi mencegah penularan kanser serviks. Vaksin ini boleh diambil seawal usia 14 tahun. Vaksin ini didapati amat berkesan terhadap jenis HPV yang menyebabkan kanser serviks. Vaksin ini hanya perlu diambil sekali dalam seumur hidup. Menurut Wain (2008), kajian terkini menunjukkan keberkesanannya dalam mencegah penularan kanser serviks adalah sehingga 89%  termasuk bagi mereka yang berada dalam lingkungan umur antara 26 tahun hingga 45 tahun.

Menurut Wain (2008), kerajaan Australia membelanjakan sebanyak A$450mil (RM 1.4bil) dalam kempen pencegahan kanser serviks untuk tempoh dua tahun yang termasuk penawaran perkhidmatan suntikan pelalian kepada kanak-kanak perempuan yang berumur 12 tahun. Selepas membuat pertimbangan mengenai kos ubat-uabt rawatan kanser yang ditanggung, Kerajaan Australia menganggap penawaran perkhidmatan suntikan pelalain merupakan suatu tindakan yang berkesan dalam mencegah kanser.

Program Pelalian HPV dilancarkan oleh Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia untuk semua remaja perempuan yang berumur 13 tahun di seluruh negara. Program ini menelan perbelanjaan sebanyak RM150 juta setahun bagi meliputi 300,000 orang remaja perempuan setiap tahun. Dijangkakan terdapat 500,000 kes baru dan 250,000 kematian akibat kanser serviks setiap tahun di seluruh dunia dan 80% daripadanya berlaku di negara-negara membangun manakala di negara-negara maju, kadar menghidapi adalah lebih rendah. Seperti di United Kingdom kanser ini hanya merupakan kanser yang kelima tertinggi berikutan kesan daripada sistem saringan dan pencegahan yang baik. (Jamisah, et.al, 2008)

Menurut Program Kebangsaan Pemeriksaan Serviks Australia (2008), vaksin mencegah kanser serviks boleh mencegah jangkitan jenis-jenis HPV yang menyebakan majoriti kes kanser serviks. Vaksin ini telah diluluskan di Australia untuk kaum wanita dalam lingkungan umur 9 hingga 26 tahun. Vaksin HPV percuma disediakan di bawah Program Pengimunan Nasional. Sebaik-baiknya vaksin ini diberi kepada pemudi-pemudi sebelum mereka mula melakukan hubungan seks. Vaksin ini bertujuan mencegah kanser serviks di generasi kaum wanita akan datang. Calitan Pap yang tetap masih perlu kerana vaksin akan mencegah beberapa jenis HPV yang menyebabkan kanser serviks.

Tahap kesedaran orang awam mengenai HPV menjadi semakin penting kerana wujudnya ujian saringan Pap Smear dan vaksin HPV yang baru diperkenalkan dalam pasaran. Maklumat yang tepat mengenai kesihatan adalah penting terutamanya bagi wanita supaya mereka boleh membuat keputusan mengenai vaksin HPV, mengurangkan risiko menjangkit HPV, menterjemah keputusan ujian Pap Smear serta mendapatkan rawatan yang sepatutnya. (Friedman dan Shepeard, 2006)

Para pengamal kesihatan bertindak menggunakan pendekatan pengetahuan yang dimiliki dalam bidang sains sosial serta memberi tumpuan dalam menjalankan promosi kesihatan menerusi media dan penggunaan komunikasi secara bersemuka berbincang mengenai gaya hidup yang sihat kepada orang awam. Menurut teks ucapan Menteri Kesihatan Liow (2010) dalam pelancaran kempen kesedaran “Power over Cervical Cancer” yang dijalankan oleh Persatuan Kebangsaan Kanser Malaysia menekankan kesedaran adalah sangat penting dalam mendidik orang awam mengenai kanser dan memberi tumpuan kepada pentinganya pengesanan awal kerana ia dapat meningkatkan peluang untuk menyembuhkan kanser serviks. Pelbagai kempen kesedaran mengenai kanser serviks dijalankan oleh agensi yang berkenaan di Malaysia. Contohnya, OGSM (Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society of Malaysia) mengadakan kempen yang bertema “Walking Tall Charity Fun Walk 2008” untuk meningkatkan kesedaran mengenai kanser serviks pada Hari Wanita Antarabangsa (dipetik dari The Star, 2008). MSD (Pharmaceutical company Merck Sharp & Dohme) menjalankan kempen untuk peringkat awal bertemakan “Tell Someone” yang bertujuan untuk membentukan kesedaran wanita. Kempen untuk peringkat kedua yang dijalankan bertemakan “Everything I can” untuk tempoh 8 bulan. Kempen ini bertujuan memperkasakan wanita supaya mereka lebih memhami tantang kanser serviks dan mengalakkan mereka mengambil langkah pertama untuk melindungi diri daripada kanser serviks dan jangkitan HPV iaitu berjumpa doktor untuk mengetahui cara melindingi diri daripada kanser dan jangkitan tersebut (dipetik dari The Sun, 2008). Matlamat CARES (Cervical Cancer Awareness Association) ialah mengurangkan kes kenser serviks di Malaysia dengan membekalkan panduan dan pendidikan mengenai kanser serviks untuk meningkatkan kesedaran orang awam. Fokus utama persatuan ini ialah mempromosikan program pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear dan langkah-langkah pencegahan. (dipetik dari The Star, 2008) Pada tahun 2010, Persatuan Kebagsaan Kanser Malaysia menjalankan kempen kanser serviks dengan memilih seorang wanita penghidap kanser serviks sebagai duta untuk meningkatkan tahap kesedaran warga Malaysia yang bertajuk POCC (Power Over Cervical Cancer). Dalam kempen tersebut, duta tersebut berkongsi pengalaman yang dialaminya ia bertujuan untuk meingkatkan kesedaran masyarakat mengenai pentingnya menjalankan pemeriksaan saringan Pap Smear (dipetik dari The Sun, 2010).

 

Komunikasi antara budaya

Definisi komunikasi antara budaya

Komunikasi ialah pemberian makna kepada perilaku iaitu apa yang diperhatikan. Budaya akan membentuk perilaku seseorang yang akhirnya “terbawa” ke dalam proses komunikasi. Komunikasi adalah dinamik iaitu terus berlangsung dan selalu berubah-ubah. Komunikasi adalah interaktif antara sumber dengan penerima. Dalam proses komunikasi, sumber dan penerima membawa latar belakang dan pengalaman masing-masing. Salah satu pihak akan cuba mempengaruhi pihak yang lain. Komunikasi tidak dapat ditarik balik. Contohnya, penerima telah terima pengaruh dari mesej yang dihantar oleh sumber dan dipengaruhi olehnya. Maka, pengaruh tersebut adalah tidak dapat ditarik balik. Komunikasi berlaku dalam konteks fizikal dan sosial. Konteks fizikal terdiri daripada keselesaan dan kenyamanan tempat komunikasi berlaku. Konteks sosial ialah hubungan sosial antara sumber dengan penerima sama ada kawan dan musuh, guru dan murid, doktor dan pesakit dan sebagainya.

Komunikasi silang budaya berlaku apabila kita bercakap dengan orang yang berbeza bangsa, ras, bahasa, agama, tingkat pendidikan dan status sosial. Komunikasi silang budaya ialah komunikasi dengan mereka yang berlainan etnik dan jantina dalam pelbagai konteks seperti konteks pendidikan, politik, teknologi dan lain-lain. Orang yang meghasilkan mesej dan orang yang mentafsirkan mesej terdiri daripada individu yang berlainan budaya. Identiti sosial antara komunikator adalah berbeza.

Tahap silang budaya boleh diukur berdasarkan padangan terhadap dunia, kepercayaan dan tingkah laku, sistem kod serta tanggapan terhadap hubungan. Padangan terhadap dunia ialah kepercayaan terhadap alam semula jadi atau nilai yang dipegang dan ia adalah sukar diubah. Setiap budaya mempunyai tanggapan masing-masing mengenai apa yang betul atau salah. Sistem kod terdiri daripada verbal dan bukan verbal. Contohnya, elemen, struktur, proses psikologikal dan sosiologikal akan mempengaruhi tafsiran terhadap sesuatu kod. Apabila kita berinteraksi dengan orang lain, kita akan bentuk tanggapan diri kita terhadap orang tersebut dan orang tersebut juga akan membentuk tanggapannya terhadap kita.

Menurut Sarbaugh apabila kita bercakap ia didefinisikan sebagai komunikasi silang budaya. Komunikasi silang budaya ialah komunikasi antara dua atau lebih individu yang mempunyai latar belakang, identiti yang berbeza dan mereka memaparkan identiti sendiri dalam proses komunikasi. Semua komunikasi ada unsur silang budaya hanya sama ada ia pada tahap yang tinggi, sederhana atau rendah. Komunikasi sangat berbudaya ialah komunikasi di mana tahap perbezaan budaya adalah sangat tinggi. Komunikasi kurang berbudaya ialah tahap perbezaan budaya yang rendah.

Contoh komunikasi silang budaya ialah interaksi pelajar Arfika dengan pelajar Melayu dari UPM sebagai antara bangsa, interpersonal dalam konteks pendidikan. CEO berbangsa German berinteraksi dengan pengurusnya yang berbangsa Cina Malaysia tentang projek perniagaan mereka. Seorang pelancong Indoneasia berurusan dengan pegawai imigrasi di pejabat imigrasi Malaysia. Seorang pakar penasihat kepada MSC bermesyurat dengan ahli lembaga pengarah MSC. Lembaga mesyurat terdiri dari oang Malaysia, Orang Jepun, Orang Kanada dan Orang UK.

Bagaimana komunikasi dikaitkan dengan budaya?

Budaya meliputi pengetahuan, pengalaman, kepercayaan, nilai, sikap, agama, waktu, peranan, hubungan yang diperolehi oleh sekelompok besar orang dari generasi ke generasi melalui usaha individu dan kelompok.  Budaya terdiri daripada budaya objektif dan subjektif. Budaya obejektif ialah budaya luaran yang jelas dan mudah dikenal pasti. Contohnya, pakaian, rupa, bahasa, adat reasam, makanan dan bentuk rumah. Budaya subjektif ialah budaya dalaman yang tidak boleh nampak dengan mata kasar dan sukar dikenal pasti. Contohnya, keprcayaan dan nilai amalan. Budaya adalah kompleks dari segi pengetahuan, kepercayaan, seni, moral, hokum, adat istiadat dan kebiasaan.

Fokus komunikasi ialah peranan dan pengaruh budaya ke atas komunikasi iaitu budaya menpengaruhi cara kita berkomunikasi. Budaya sama ada ialah perilaku atau sesuatu yang muncul semula jadi, dijaga dan diubahsuai. Respon terhadap budaya terdiri cara berkomunikasi, keadaaan komunikasi, bahasa dan gaya bahasa serta perilaku bukan verbal.

Budaya dan komunikasi mempunyai hubungan yang rapat. Budaya akan mempengaruhi cara kita berkomunikasi. Komunikasi terikat rapat dengan budaya. Budaya berbeza maka tingkah laku dalam komunikasi juga akan berbeza. Cara kita berkomunikasi, keadaan komunikasi, bahasa dan gaya bahasa yang digunakan melambangkan budaya kita iaitu nilai yang dipegang. Nilai yang dipegang akan membentuk tingkah laku yang akhirnya akan “terbawa” ke dalam proses komunikasi. Perilaku dalam komunikasi dibentuk berdasarkan budaya yang dimiliki ini menunjukkan bahawa perilaku terikat dengan budaya.

Budaya bersifat kompleks, abstrak dan luas yang akan menentukan perilaku seseorang. Setiap komunikasi mengandungi potensi komunikasi antara budaya kerana kita selalunya mengamalkan budaya yang berbeza dengan orang lain walaupun perbezaan itu hanya sedikit. Komunikasi berkonteks tinggi bagi mereka yang berbudaya konteks tinggi. Maka, gaya komunikasi yang diamalkan adalah tidak langsung dan terdapat maklumat tersirat atau lebih daripada satu maksud pada satu mesej. Tumpuan komunikasi berkonteks tinggi adalah kandungan  tersirat yang ingin disampaikan. Contohnya intonasi, isyarat badan dan persekitaran. Contoh negara yang mengamalkan komunikasi berkonteks tinggi ialah Jepun, Malaysia dan Indonesia. Komunikasi berkonteks rendah diamalkan oleh masyarakat yang berbudaya konteks rendah. Ia fokus kepada apa yang dinyatakan secara lisan. Komunikasi adalah jelas, tepat dan terus terang. Mereka memaksudkan apa yang dikatkan dan menyatakan apa yang mereka maksudkan. Sekiranya tidak setuju dengan sesuatu, mereka akan menyatakan TIDAK. Contoh negara yang mengamalkan komunikasi konteks tinggi ialah Amerika Syarikat, Australia dan German.

Budaya dan komunikasi mempunyai hubungan yang timbal balik. Budaya terdiri daripada sebahagian perilaku kita dan komunikasi akan menentukan, memelihara, mengembangkan dan mewariskan budaya kita. Menurut Hall, “culture is communication, communication is culture”. Ini menunjukkan bahawa komunikasi adalah dua hala. Apabila budaya seseorang berbeza maka, sistem nilai yang dipegang akan turut berbeza. Cara komunikasi kita adalah bergantung kepada budaya kita iaitu bahasa yang digunakan, aturan serta norma.

Contohnya, orang Amerika biasanya bertegur dengan orang yang tidak dikenali. Manakala, orang Malaysia hanya bertegur dengan orang yang dikenali sahaja. Perbezaan cara teguran mengambarkan budaya antara mereka berbeza.

Komunikasi berbudi bahasa diamalkan dalam kalangan orang Asia. Orang Asia menjaga harmoni. Orang Melayu berbudi dan berbahasa adalah sangat penting. Ini ditujukkan menerusi kesan kepada cara komunikasi. Contohnya nilai bekerjasama umpamanya berat sama dipikul, ringan sama dijinjing. Nilai menjaga harmoni umpamanya bersatu kita teguh, bercerai kita roboh.

Budaya juga ditunjukkan menerusi komunikasi verbal dan bukan verbal. Contoh komunikasi verbal ialah penggunaan bahasa yang sesuai dengan status dan pertalian antara sumber dan penerima. Penggunan panggilan hormat seperti encik, pakcik, mak long dan sebagainya. Orang Asia lebih menjada kedudukan hieraki, air muka orang lain dan teguran. Cakap kasar dan menyampuk adalah dilarang. Contoh komunikasi bukan verbal seperti penggunaan warna kuning oleh Sultan, pakaian kebangsaan dan sebagainya.

Halangan komunikasi antara budaya

Perbezaan budaya akan meningkatkan risiko dalam komunikasi iaitu menyebabkan berlakunya salah faham. Salah faham akan menyebabkan proses komunikasi tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Contohnya, seorang pelajar Korea sedang sibuk dengan belajar kerana aka nada peperiksaan pada esok. Kebetulannya ketika dia sedang belajar, rakanya seorang Melayu Malaysia datang. Dia memberitahu orang Melayu Malaysia bahawanya sibuk lalu tutup pintu. Dalam budaya Korea, komunikasi yang diamalkan lebih terus terang berbanding Malaysia. Dari pandangan Malaysia, walaupun sibuk tetapi seharusnya menyambut tetamu juga. Gaya komunikasi yang diamalkan adalah tidak terus terang. Ini akan menyebabkan salah faham orang Melayu Malaysia terhadap orang Korea dan menganggap dia seorang yang tidak peramah.

Etnosentrik ialah memandang budaya sendiri sebagai pusat bagi sesuatu perkara lain yang dinilai berdasarkan rujukkan kelompok sendiri. Etnosentrik dalam diri seseroang akan menyebabkan kesukaran kita dalam proses memahami komunikasi orang lain sebab bahasa dan nilai yang berlainan.

Tiada kompetnsi budaya akan meningkatkan halangan komunikasi silang budaya. Contohnya pengetahuan budaya sendiri dan orang lain, sensitiviti budaya, nilai budaya, dalam kumpulan dan luar kumpulan, ketidakpastian, prejudis dan stereotaip. Pengetahuan budaya akan menentukan pengaruh budaya ke atas komunikasi.

Kita selalunya menggangap budaya kita sama dengan orang lain. Kita akan menggunakan budaya sendiri sebagai standard untuk mengukur budaya orang lain. Apabila berlakunya ketidak sehaluan dalam proses komunikasi adalah disebabkan perbezaan budaya. “Mindset” yang terdapat pada seseorang akan membawa cabaran pertembungan kepada sikap, pengharapan dan gaya komunikasi.

Stereotaip ialah generalisasi atar sekumpulan orang, objek atau peristiwa secara luas berdasarkan satu budaya. Maklmat yang digunakan untuk menilai seseorang adalah terbatas kerana hanya merujuk kepada budaya sendiri. Contohnya, orang Yunani distereotaip sebagai orang yang suka menipu atau mencuri milik orang lain.

Atribusi ialah memberi makna kepada sesuatu perbuatan sama ada perbuatan sendiri atau orang lain. Semua komunikasi melibatkan proses atribusi sama ada ia sengaja atau tidak sengaja. Contohnya Lamal tegas dengan pendirian ingin berjumpa dengan pengurus. Dalam pandangan setiausaha dia seorang agresif dan biadap tetapi dalam pandangan Lamal ini menunjukkan dia seorang yang tegas.

Bias dalam komunikasi terdiri daripada dalam kumpulan dan luar kumpulan. Dalam kumpulan ialah mementingkan persamaan dengan orang lain. Manakala, luar kumpulan ialah mementingkan perbezaan dengan orang lain. Luar kumpulan akan menambahkan jarak perbezaan budaya dengan orang lain dan mempengaruhi cara kita memproses maklumat. Luar kumpulan menganggap komunikator yang lain sebagai orang asing iaitu tidak boleh dipercayai, tidak mudah jadi kawan, banyak perkara mengenainya tidak diketahui dan tidak pandai. Manakla, dalam kumpulan adalah sebaliknya.

Ketidakpastian dan kerisauan akan menjejaskan keupayaan memproses maklumat kerana mereka merisau hasil komunikasi. Mereka gagal memberi perhatian kepada cara komunikasi dalam proses mendapatkan hasil yang diingini.

Contoh perbezaan budaya. Dalam temu janji orang Amerika menjaga masa dan akan mengelakkan sebarang gangguan yang akan menjejaskan jadual waktu mereka. Orang Afrika pula ialah jenis yang tidak mementingkan masa dan tidak perlu membuat temu janji sekiranya ingin berjumpa dengan seseorang. Mereka rela dan biasa dengan ada gangguan dan perkara yang tidak dapat dijangkakan. Di sini jelas menunjukkan pertembungan gaya pengurusan masa antara orang Amerika dengan orang Afrika.

Perbezaan gaya komunikasi disebabkan oleh perbezaan gaya pendedahan diri. Contohnyam tingkah laku, kegemara, kerja dan belajar, wang serta personaliti. Contoh perbezaan gaya pendedahan diri antara individualistik dan kolektivistik. Maklumat yang boleh dikongsi antara dua masyarakat adalah berbeza. Masyarakat kolektivistik boleh berkongsi segala mengenainya dengan orang lain. Masyarakat individualistik mengasingkan hal peribadi dengan kerja. Maklumat mengenainya yang boleh dikongsi dengan orang lain adalah terhad. Apbila orang individualistik bertemu dengan orang yang mengamalkan daya kolektivistik akan berlaku pertembungan sekiranya mereka tidak mengenai budaya antara satu sama lain.

Cara komunikasi sama ada secra langsung atau tidak langsung.

Cara mengatasi halangan komunikasi antara budaya

Halangan komunikasi dapat diatasi dengan memahami budaya orang lain sebelum berinteraksi dengannya. Budaya terdiri daripada bahasa dan perilaku budaya orang lain. Kita perlu memahami konsep budaya dan faktor yang berkaitan untuk meningkatkan keberkesanan komunikasi. Dengan adanya fahaman mengenai sosial budaya seseorang akan membolehkan kita berkomunikasi dengan lebih lancar. Sosial budaya terdiri daripada persepsi, proses verbal dan bukan verbal.

Strategi mengatasi cabaran komunikasi silang budaya terdiri daripada strategi kognitif, afektif dan tingkah laku. Strategi kognitif ialah meningkatkan kefahaman budaya orang lain seperti melalui internet atau menanya orang berpengalaman. Kita perlu mengenal pasti perbezaan dan halangan komunikasi yang mungkin berlaku dalam interaksi sperti pola komunikasi, adat reasam, nilai dan sikap. Pembelajaran bahasa tempatan akan memudahkan proses komunikasi. Strategi afektif ialah berfikiran terbuka, sabar, memandang perbezaan secara positif dan unik serta menyenangkan hati. Kita perlu bersifat adaptif dan flesible dengan keadaan yang sentiasa berubah. Kita perlu sedia berkompromi, mempunyai sikap diplomasi dan sensitive kepada situasi. Strategi tingkah laku terbahagi kepada akomodasi dan divergen. Akomodasi ialah memberi tumpuan ketika orang lain sedang bercakap dan cuba memahami apa yang disampaikan olehnya. Kita perlu perlahan kadar percakapan, ulang perkataan yang berpotensi disalah dengar atau menimbulkan salah faham, sesuaikan tabiat komunikasi dengan situasi serta memberi masa kepada komunikator untuk menyampaikan mesej. Divergen ialah individu yang akan cuba mengelakkan daripada berinteraksi dengan orang yang lain, elak dari suasana yang mungkin akan timbul konflik, tidak mengambil berat terhadap konflik yang timbul dan menunjukkan perbezaan dari segi tabiat komunikasi.

 

Violence in media

Agree or disagree Violence in media is said to influence aggressive behaviors of children?

Wilson et al. (2002) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007) found that children’s TV programs were more violent than adult programs, showing up to 30 violent acts per hour. Violence in children’s programs is often justified, rewarded, humorous, and portrayed by attractive characters, all characteristics that have been shown to increase subsequent imitation by viewers (e.g., Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961; Berkowitz, 1970; Berkowitz & Rawlings, 1963) (in Bandura, 1977). Moreover, the degree of violence was related to the type of children’s programs. Slapstick (Tom & Jerry), Superhero (Power Rangers), and adventure or mystery (Scooby Doo) programs had considerably more violence than programs focusing on social relationships (Care Bears) or magazine formats (Barney). Overall, Wilson et al. (2002) concluded that violence in children’s programs proposed considerable risks for young viewers. There is a widespread belief that children are especially vulnerable to negative effects from media violence in general compares with adolescents and adults. We commonly believe that children are highly vulnerable to harm in the world. Because, children have less experience than adolescents and adults do. Piaget and Inhelder (1969) (in W. James Potter, 2003) state children have not yet developed a high degree of thinking ability, emotional control, or moral reasoning. So, when children are very young and their minds are relatively undeveloped, they have difficulty distinguishing fantasy from reality. Cantor (1994) (in W. James Potter, 2003) said children often do not understand the “make believe” nature of the monsters in movies.

When thinking about the media and the potential for harmful effects from exposure, particularly to violence there is ample evidence that children as a group are given a special status.  First, when we look at the list of consumer advocacy groups that have been created to help educate the public about the risk of all kinds of media exposure and to put pressure on congress as well as the media themselves to change or at least to label their content, we can see that many of those groups focus on children. Furthermore, Parents’ Choice and the TV Parental Guidelines Monitoring Board also indicate a focus on children. The second evidence illustrating that children are regarded as an especially vulnerable group is in the behaviour of public officials. W. James Potter (2003) has state throughout the past three decades of congressional concern on the issues of media violence; all of the proposed legislation has focused on protecting children. These bills fall generally into one of three categories, which are safe harbour, report cards, and block devices. Based on this example of situation on the protecting children from media violence, we can see it is easy to accept the belief that children are especially vulnerable to negative effect from exposure to media violence when we thinks of example that we have observed in our everyday lives. Especially when a family watches a horror film, it is the children who exhibit the most extreme reactions and who have the nightmares. Also, when we see copycat behaviours, it is usually children playing cops and robbers in the backyard or wrestling in the school. These effects are easy to observe, because they happen almost immediately after the exposure to violence. Nevertheless, when the criteria for causality accepted by the scientific community are applied to the research in this area, the conclusion is clear; exposure to media violence is causally related to aggressive behaviour.

So, I’m totally agreed that violence in media is said to influence aggressive behaviours of children. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, television show that direct correlation exists between television violence and aggressive behavior and heavy television viewers are more fearful, less trusting and more apprehensive than lights viewers. Media is a tool that may be the intermediary between the owner media and the target audience or the public. The role of media is very important to convey various forms of information such as education, culture, economics, entertainment and news. However, nowadays in Malaysian context many broadcast media plan in the form of mystical, crime stories, the wild and way of life entertainment programs that are not compatible with the cultural life in our country. These programs are aired by all media channels whether television, the internet, interactive media, newspapers, books, magazines and articles. Television programs also are racing to present the highest impressions hot and violent and difficult to reach by the idea of attracting attention audience. This phenomenon is said to be the cause of the violent cultural epicenter and adapted in the audience whether adult teenagers or even children (Mallick, 1996) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007). According to the report of the Criminal Division and Violence in America, in
2001 there were over 20,000 cases of murder, rape 75.000 and 600.000 cases
physical assault that occurs within a year (Taylor, PePlau and Sears, 2001). Psychological experts have made many studies and found exposure to aggression in the media is one of the main reasons why this occurs. In recent years researchers found in the treatment of television and video into a catalyst in improving behavior among children’s (Pennel and Browne, 1999). Violent in the media as well as increasing the stimulus and cause of person to lose control, while in the world significant (Anderson and Dill, 2000). The study also mentions the children’s were the most affected by the effects of aggressive behavior repeated exposure of these behaviors in the media (Pennel and Browne, 1999). According to Stein and Friderich (1972) (in George Rodman, 2009), who watched the children’s aggressive violent films in the media have a tendency to behave aggressive than those who did not witness it. This study shows that watching violent media has resulted in children’s behaving aggressively. The study also found that the observations on the behavior of violent people, it can change aggressive behavior of students for violent acts, even in cases certain others are not directly intended to influence. The presence of strong modeling effects of media can also affect attitudes, emotions and behavior of aggressive students to behave aggressively, although no such effect occurs only through exposure to the actions others (Stein and Friderich, 1972) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007). Eron (1982) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007), in a study on the media and violent impact on children’s aggressive behavior has indicated children’s aggressive more easily affected by violent scenes in the media over children’s normal. This occurred because the children’s aggressive were also features aggressiveness in them and when they watch violent in the media, the behavior will be easily triggered violent behavior physical verbal and nonverbal. Study Eron (1982) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007) also found that children’s aggressive frequent viewing of violent media tend to behave aggressively influence of the models that they watch violent. As a result, children’s, often have problems in establishing the identity of self and identity as constantly exposed to violent situations when they reach adolescence (Ma’rof, 2001). This is because children and teenagers are among those who have not done in life and still in the process of forming the personalities themselves.

Discuss your view on this issue based on at least two theories that you have learned in class

Based on this statement on that issue, I have chosen three theories was related in the media violent to help us more understanding about this issues which is Cultivation theory,  Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura (1977) and Uses and Gratification Theory by  Bumler dan Katz in 1974.

Cultivation theory looks at viewing violence from a cumulative, long-term perspective, involving three areas: institutional-policy perspectives, messages about violence on television, and ultimately effects (Morgan, Shanahan, & Signorielli, in press). Cultivation theory argues that to understand the effects of viewing on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors we must examine television as a collective symbolic environment with an underlying formulaic structure. Cultivate common world views and stereotypes. Violence is one such theme and is especially important in the cultivation perspective because people, especially children, are more likely to experience violence when they watch television (particularly cartoons) than in real life. Consequently, cultivation theory predicts that children’s conceptions about violence are more likely to reflect the messages about violence they see, day in and day out, on television. Cultivation research has found that those who watch more television are more likely to view the world as a mean and scary place, to believe that crime and violence are more prevalent than they actually are, and to take precautions to protect themselves, their homes, and their families against crime (Morgan et al., in press).

Regarding the length of exposure necessary to cause a violent response in viewers, a study by Donnerstein and Berkowitz (1981) (in rosly Kayar, 2007) found that a mere 5 minutes of exposure to violent sexual content was enough to increase the likelihood of an aggressive response in adult males in comparison to a control group. In addition, the FCC report could have cited the National Television Violence Study’s summary of the experimental research on the effect of contextual variables on viewer aggression (Federman, 1998) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007). Then Cross-sectional surveys also measuring aggressive and violent behaviour and exposure to television violence have consistently demonstrated that higher levels of exposure are associated with higher levels of aggression and violence. Experimental research and longitudinal studies have shown that exposure to television violence precedes aggressive behaviour. Similarly (although experiments are better evidence of non-spuriousness), both experimental research and longitudinal studies have ruled out alternative explanations for the relationship between exposure and aggression.

From the standpoint of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) (Rosly kayar, 2007), negative comments about aggression may function to alter children’s perceptions of the reward or punishment contingencies associated with the behaviour and thereby affect children’s subsequent imitative behaviour. According to a family communication perspective (e.g., Austin, 2001; Buerkel-Rothfuss & Buerkel, 2001), comments made by caregivers convey a set of values that may counteract the implicit message conveyed by a program. Both theoretical approaches predict that criticism will reduce the adoption of aggressive attitudes and behaviours, whereas praise will promote it. Several researchers have also noted that adult co-viewing of controversial content without making comments sometimes communicates tacit approval of the behaviours witnessed and thereby enhances the effect of the content (Austin, 2001; Buerkel-Rothfuss & Buerkel, 2001; Nathanson, 1999).

Bandura (1973) found that learning through observation or modeling
is a key technique in the form of violent reaction. With observe the reaction model, there are two forms of response that is learned and do it. When you look at the behavior of the model, students learn and evaluation of the response is when interacting with others in which we do violent action as a result of a learned response. Among those adults, their willingness to act violent normally based on the presence of model is violent. The model is probably not acting as a source of direction or may act as a violent ’cause’.

Besides that, Social Learning Theory also explains the nature of man to imitate the behavior and actions of others. This situation is most pronounced among children and adolescents. In a study conducted by Bandura, he introduced the concept of Social Learning or the Learning Observations suggest that an individual is socially accepted behavior mimics the behavior is not well accepted by society. This study is associated with the Social Learning Theory as children learn behaviors through observation and imitation, and involve “role model”, particularly when exposed to programs that display a negative action in the media. According to Bandura (1977) (in Md. Salleh Hj Hassan and Sim Yee Lian, 2006), adolescents emulate anything that interests them. Although there are studies that prove the erotic materials and negative in the media does not cause beyond the control of sexual desire and deviant behavior, but often see or read such material can change the perception of children about sex and delinquency. Social learning theory emphasizes the interaction between humans and the environment (Bandura, 1977). He suggested the concept of ‘determinism’ which says that human influence his fate by controlling the forces in the vicinity, but they are also influenced by the powers of this environment. This situation is an interactive process, mutual respect and reciprocity between human behavior, environment and internal processes such as cognition and perception. This means that humans can control the requirements and behavior, while the environment is to control and influence what is done by individuals. Based on all this human interaction will only choose the very best of several options available. Thus, if the child violent behavior witnessed on television, and chooses a deviant situation is the violent behavior is the best thing for him or her.

Desensitization (Potter, 1999) (Baran and Davis, 2009) and social learning theory (Bandura, 2002), for example, examine the immediate and typically harmful effects of viewing violence. Priming, or the activation of associated ideas about violence, may also be critical in assessing the effects of violence in children’s programs (Potter, 1999; Kirsh, 2006). Similarly, priming may have a critical impact on children’s learning behaviours. Beyond direct imitation, the way violence is typically portrayed in the media often leads to the social learning of unrealistic and unhealthy attitudes toward violence and aggression. Social learning theory based on the assumption that people learn how to behave by observing others, including those portrayed in the media. In which a child learns the expectations, norms, and values of society. Two other theories are closely related to social learning theory. Both aggressive stimulation and catalytic theories suggest that media might be one of several factors that could cause someone to act out in an antisocial way. Both theories suggest, for example that a young person who was angry and depressed about his or her social life, and  who also had a bad day at school might be pushed over the edge into violence behaviour by the depiction of violence in entertainment media, especially if that violence is rewarded rather than punished. Repeatedly viewing media violence for entertainment leads to desensitization— that is, a diminishing of the normal emotional response to the depiction of violence and interpersonal hostilities. Research shows that over time, with repeated exposure, viewers show a lessened degree of emotional disturbance to violent images (e.g., Cline, Croft, & Courrier, 1973) (in Shirley Biagi, 1999) and a reduction in sympathy for the victims of violence (e.g., Mullin & Linz, 1995) (in Shirley Biagi, 1999). Violence that is extensive or graphic and violence that is portrayed in a humorous context are especially likely to promote desensitization (Gunter, 1985; Linz, Donnerstein, & Penrod, 1988) (in Shirley Biagi, 1999).

On the Uses and Gratification Theory view about the influence of media violence towards the children aggressive behaviour, this theory look on how the children used the variety way to achieved their satisfaction by using television.

In this theory also, we can look on how the children have high exposure to the media. For example, electronic media certainly affects children and learn to imitate the behavior (Johnson et al., 2002). In a study of 426 samples of students in six colleges in California North (213 men and 213 women) aged 15 to 18 years found that the adventure scenes has lead students a behavior control problems, emotion and learning. Study results the video showing the students were often shouted, feeling depressed, scared and crying while after the video showed that the students have repeats and exhibited aggressive behavior of viewers of the media. By that in his study, he concluded that children and teenagers exposed to violent behavior and learn to accept violence in daily life. They in turn will form a positive attitude the use of force and ultimately failed to notice the effects of the negative effects of such violence behavior. This study was supported by a study conducted by Willes and Strasburger (1998) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007) conducted in New Jersey against the 224 people primary school students (9 to 11 years) and middle school students (14 to 15 years). In this study, students are required to list aggressive behavior is often available from the media and often is done or imitated by them. Findings indicated that there were three types of behavior that is often imitated by aggressive students of physical, verbal, and anti-social as hitting, pulling hair, kick, taught, humiliate, harass, boycott, say, defamation and damage to public facilities. Willes and Strasburger (1998) (in Rosly kayar, 2007) also found that aggressive behavior is a source of social status or the effective way to solve the problem. Therefore, image and media information displays of violence and bad behavior will contribute to the imitation. This behavior, which will then led to treatment of violence in students and students consider aggressive behavior is acceptable, popular and humor.

 

Support with concrete and specific example.

Nathanson and Cantor (2000) hypothesized that asking children to focus on a cartoon victim’s feelings would encourage empathy with the character and reduce the likelihood that the cartoon would promote aggressive attitudes. Their study involved showing a Woody Woodpecker cartoon to children in second through sixth grades under two conditions: One group, the mediation group, was asked before viewing the cartoon to try to think about the man and his feelings during the cartoon. (The man in the story was a tree surgeon who had interrupted Woody’s nap and was consequently the victim of Woody’s attacks.) A second group saw the same cartoon with no mediation, and a third group did not watch the cartoon. A week before the cartoon-viewing session, children had filled out a questionnaire that included a baseline measure of aggressive tendencies (e.g., “If another kid tried to take something that was mine, I might push or hit that kid”). After viewing the cartoon (or not viewing it, in the control condition), they filled out a similar questionnaire with different items (e.g., “If someone was really bothering me, I might push or hit them to get back at them”). The findings revealed that among boys, those who watched the cartoon without the mediation showed a significantly higher acceptance of aggression than did those who did not watch the cartoon. However, the boys who watched the cartoon with the mediation were as low in their acceptance of aggression as the boys who had not watched the cartoon. Among girls, no effects of the cartoon or the mediation on attitudes toward aggression were observed. The girls scored very low in all three conditions. Other ratings revealed that among both boys and girls, the mediation reduced liking for Woody and reduced the degree to which children found the cartoon funny.The results also showed a tendency for the effects either not to occur or to be minimal for younger children, those aged 5 and 6 years (Corder-Bolz, 1980; Grusec, 1973; Mattern & Lindholm, 2001). Grusec’s finding that the younger children imitated both the aggressive actions and the experimenter’s critical comments suggests that these children may have been absorbing what they were seeing and hearing in a rote fashion without comprehending the implications or relating the comments to what they were seeing. Research suggests that 5-year-olds are less likely than older children to recognize inconsistencies between the verbal and visual aspects of a presentation (Hoffner, Cantor, & Thorson, 1989) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007). Therefore, undoing the effect of a compelling visual display by verbal means may be more difficult for children in this age group.

Grusec (1973) conducted a study to determine whether slightly older children would be affected by an experimenter’s evaluations of witnessed violence even when their play behaviour was measured in the subsequent absence of the evaluator. She had 5- and 10-year-olds watch a film of a female adult engaging in a series of distinctive aggressive actions involving toys, while they heard a female experimenter make positive, neutral, or negative evaluations of the behaviour. Each child was then left alone to play with similar toys. Despite the absence of the woman who made the comments, the older children’s imitation was affected by her comments: Less imitation of her behaviours occurred in the negative-comment condition than in the neutral and positive-comment conditions. In contrast, and consistent with Hicks’s (1968) findings that the commenter needed to be present during the play period for the effects to occur, the younger children’s level of imitation was unaffected by the woman’s comments. However, the lack of effect was not due to the younger children’s failure to pay attention to the comments. After the play period, when the children watched the film a second time in a different experimenter’s presence, many of the younger children repeated the first experimenter’s negative remarks. These younger children imitated both the aggressive behaviour in the film and the negative comments the previous experimenter made, without demonstrating an effect of her comments on their own behaviour—and apparently without noticing the inconsistency.

In a small-scale study (24 participants), Mattern and Lindholm (2001) examined the effects of a parent’s critical comments about TV violence. Five- and 6- year-old participants viewed a segment of the action–adventure television program The Incredible Hulk with their mothers. At random, the mothers had been assigned to a treatment group or a control group. Those in the treatment group heard a description of the upcoming clip and were given anti-aggressive comments that they might make while watching the show. After viewing the clip, children participated in a game in which they could purportedly help or hurt a child who was said to be playing the game in another room. The children’s play behaviour with aggressive and non aggressive toys was also observed.

Coyne and Archer (2004) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007) found that indirect aggression was extremely common on TV programs that are popular among children’s and teenagers, being shown at even higher rates than physical violence. Consistent with real-life studies, they also found that females were more likely to be portrayed as indirectly aggressive, whereas males were more likely to be physically aggressive. Indirectly aggressive acts were also shown to be justified and rewarded and often portrayed by attractive characters, all characteristics that have been shown to increase subsequent imitation by viewers (e.g., Donnerstein, Slaby, & Eron, 1994) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007). In a much smaller scale study, Feshbach (2005) also found that females on TV were more likely to be portrayed as indirectly aggressive. According to the GAM, the high amount and portrayal of female indirect aggression on TV might particularly have an influence on subsequent female aggression as young girls may use this behaviour as a way of harming their peers. Coyne and Archer (2005) set out to determine whether viewing acts of indirect aggression on TV predicted the occurrence of this aggression in real life. Their results supported this view, with indirectly aggressive girls (but not boys) viewing more indirect aggression on TV than nonaggression girls. Coyne and Archer (2005) suggest two possibilities, namely, that indirectly aggressive individuals learn how to aggress by viewing such behaviour on TV or that these individuals seek out such behaviour to confirm their own use of it.

Viewing acts of violence in the media may increase the risk of short-term and long-term negative effects on viewers, particularly in children. Rodman (2009) in summarizing past research, short-term effect is members might model acts of violence they see in the media, especially if they expect to be rewarded for it. In long term, they might experience desensitization, a process which viewers of media violence develop callousness or emotional neutrality in the face of a real-life act of violence. Reports found that most television programming contained at least some harmful violence that helped children learn how to behave violently, that desensitized them to the harmful consequences of violence, and that made them more fearful of being attacked.

Conclusion

So, based on those theories, I will stress again my stand on these issues which is I totally agreed the media violence will influence the children aggressive behavior. An event or experience that is possible averse through the media will raise the childen’s emotions and in turn trigger behavior as dependence, withdrawal, aggressive and use of drugs or alcohol. So by watching the media, aggressive children’s it would be easy to learn and see the variety of experiences whether the model positive or negative. Consequently children will use aggressive all models involved behavior that will be stored in the memory system students and applied in life.

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The role of media in a society has been defined as the operation that involves collecting, assembling, interpreting, and disseminating information” (Lasswell, 1977). The media kept the public informed on events and issues that occur at local, national and international levels. International media organizations played special role in informing the public at the international level on issues of their concern. Besides that, the mass media were distinguished to have the potential to influence the public perceptions, thoughts, priorities and social actions. Ezhar Tamam (1996) state the mass media were also known for being a gatekeeper of information in determining the agenda setting of the public. The media organizations might change, restricted, and broaden the information; which could be disseminated in line with the media organization policies, attitude, and values of the journalism and media practitioners.

In Malaysia context, a long term strategy to achieve Vision 2020 was formulated and it is clear that the government is serious about transforming the economy into the information age by laying a number of relevant national and industry development plans which includes The Ninth Malaysian Plan, The National IT Agenda and The Multimedia Super Corridor. In pursing Vision 2020, the government is actually forging the forward for Malaysians to be part of Information Society because Vision 2020 is also about an ambition to gain knowledge empowerment for the Malaysian Society. Multimedia Super Corridor demonstrated the total commitment of the nation in trying to keep up with the exploding computer and communications technology and providing its 23 million citizens with access to information in an equitable manner.

Freedom of speech and press is a very important value in communication. However, in Malaysia, there are not had totally freedom of speech and press. Article 10 (1) (a) of the Federal Constitution cites the rights of a Malaysian citizen to freedom of speech and expression. This include communication by word of mouth, sign, and gestures, and also through works of art, music, sculpture, photographs, film, videos, books, magazines, and newspaper. Freedom of press is included in the freedom of speech and expression. The provision, however, does not cover the right to information. The freedom provided in the constitution is not absolute, but has various restrictions instead. Parliament to impose restriction on free speech as it deems necessary or expedient on the grounds of the security of the Federation or any part of thereof. Besides that, Internal Security Act 1960 is the most well-know restrictive Act on freedom of speech. This Act empowers the Minister to prohibit printing, publication, sale, issue, circulation, or possession of any document or publication which appear to him to contain or incite violence, cause disobedience to the law or any lawful order, be calculated or likely to lead to a breach of the peace, or promote feelings of hospitality between races or classes of the population or be prejudicial to the nation or public order or security of the federation. From my side, I half agreed with our country-style on the freedom of speech perspective. This because if we have totally freedom to talk anything on any medium such as newspaper, television, and internet without have law to control our act, we are actually in the dangerous situation. When everyone not control by laws, we have no right to stop the others to harm ourselves, or our society. But, sometime the limitation on freedom of speech also had negative side if we are to control by one side and not have chance to express our mind.

In Malaysia, normally the press is privately owned by the government through the ruling component parties which holds the stakes indirectly. The concentration of ownership could be traced by observing the corporations that own the press. Although there are some who owned private business, but it does not make much difference in terms of control they are usually very much in support of the government. MCA has also been acquiring independent press for its political interests. The most prominent of its daily newspaper are The Star and Nanyang Siang Pau. The Star is owned by MCA through its investment arm; Huaren Holdings Sdn Bhd. Nanyang Siang Pau and the China Press were previously held by Hume Industries’s controlling stakes but sold to the Star Publications in 2001. UMNO owned Utusan and friends of Umno or associated parties own all the rest.

Severin and Tankard describe the agenda setting function of the media as “the media capability, through repeated news coverage, of raising the importance of an issue in public mind”.  People what to think and talk from the messages they receive. The media, in effect, largely dictate our daily interest. Naturally we think more about those ideas presented in the media than about ideas not in the media. Certainly we realize that our view of reality can be biased by the media’s agenda setting. Certain political positions, religion views, opinion and ideas can repeat and given prominence in the media; other can be neglected. In Malaysia, the most important implication of a political party-controlled press is that responsible reporting could be insured. With political parties owning the press, they have direct control over the contents. With these political parties keeping a close watch on the press, malicious contents could be avoided. However, it does not go beyond this. In this form of ownership concentration and control, the negative impacts outweigh the positive ones. In addition to that, it defines the utmost press objective. The opposition had virtually no access to the print and electronic mass media and that Malaysians were treated to all sorts of pro-BN and anti-BA messages in the state-controlled media.

Framing theory considers message characteristics and how information is crafted. It’s then further by considering the psychological characteristics of audience members that cause messages to be interpreted in various ways (Maher, 2001). Frames enable people to evaluate information based on shared conceptual constructs. Media framing begins when decisions are made on which stories are covered and how will be treated. It involves selection and salience by placing issues or events within a field of meaning. Reese (2001) asserted that the concept of framing implies that the way a given piece of information is presented can create different outcomes among different audience. For example, in the incident trainee pilot dies in plane crash. The stories covered by media only how the incident was happen. Media was treated this incident as an unfortunate incident. However, media did not coverage and quoted official sources in reporting the incident.

Scheufele & Tewksbury (2007) reveal that the emergence of agenda setting, framing. And priming has signaled a paradigm shift in political-communication research. While agenda setting is based on the notion that media have limited effects, both priming and framing talk about the potentially strong attitudinal effects of media and these effects depend heavily on audience’s schemata or human frames. Furthermore, agenda setting emphases on the transfer of news salience by media, whereas framing extends further by stressing on the transfer of salience of news attributes. If the Agenda Setting theory highlights on what the audience tends to think about, then the Framing theory explains how to think about by the audience (Baran & Davis. 2003; Miller, 2002).

The most striking weakness in a political party-controlled press is that the opposing views are always suppressed. Most of the time the views are dismissed without any thought, when they could be good for the nation. Opposing views and opinions are ruled out as extreme, irresponsible, and detrimental to society regardless of any trace of utility in them. As for the public, the absence of opposing view will offer no challenge for their intellectual judgment, thus, breeding a population with no logical or critical reasoning. An extremely receptive society is definitely preparing a nation for a fall.

Another weakness evident in this system is that it does nothing to gain or at least maintain the press’s credibility. With that much control, the press will lose its credibility among the public. This increases public reliance on rumors and foreign media, which is detrimental to the nation. This will also cause the foreign publications to flourish and prosper in this country. With more educated people in the population, it is common that they go out and find alternative views rather than accept everything shoved at them. The next obvious weakness is the system promotes unfairness in providing the nation with press choices. The opposition parties are all entitled to only internal publications like Harakah and The Rocket. The circulation of these alternative publications is limited and they are banned from newsstands.

The other Malaysia press that are not owned by the ruling component parties are private business-owned. Although the main goal of these media is profit, their main concern on achieving the goal is not providing what the audience wants, which is differing views, but to obtain support from the ruling party. The support from the government plays an extremely important role for private-owned media in Malaysia. Government support means their survival and sustenance. This means a secure place in the business, and ensuring an ongoing licensing. In order for these companies to gain government support, they have to support the government. This tie kept by reporting in favor the government and ample coverage on the ruling political parties. In short, the Malaysian political scene does not permit any co-existence between mainstream and alternative press.

Rodman (2009), early powerful-effects studies developed an approach later termed the bullet theory, which implied that media effects flow directly from media to individual-like bullet. According to the bullet theory, people who watch violent movies would become violent, and those who read “immoral” comic book become in-moral. Later research, such ad the People’s Choice studies, suggest a two step flow in which media effects occur mostly in interaction with interpersonal communication. You might or might not buy an advertised product, for example, depending on what your friends say about it. For the great majority of mediated messages, however, effects depend on interpersonal communication. After the movies’ first weekend, its box office will likely e determined by word-od-mouth communication. Toady’s media researchers recognize a multistep flow in which effects are part of complex interaction. On one level, opinions are shaped by opinion leaders, who in turn have their own opinion leaders. You might be your friend’s opinion leader about what sort of computer to buy, for example, which would influence how much effects ads and articles about computer would have on that friend. But you probably have your own opinion leaders, people who know more about cell phones than you do and therefore affect how you will react to the information about cell phones that you encounter in the media. At a same time, a wide range of other influence-family, friends, school, church-act as filters of media information and therefore affect how individuals will react to mediated messages.

In nowadays, people actively classify and interpret their life experiences to make sense of the worlds around them. So, there should have right to freedom of information and the right to access various information sources. Media should reform that supports the press to provide credible and differing information and opinions. Current press system, which are has tight and selective control over media license that paralyses the whole system. The Malaysian press is seen as being fully controlled by the political motivated media only promote and reflect the agenda of the political elites without any concern for the poor, marginal and downtrodden.

Another argument for the free expression of press and public opinion centred, on the theory of utilitarianism. Philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham and James Mill believed the smooth operation of the political system depended on the free expression of public opinion. It was necessary for “good governance”. Press freedom-as universal suffrage, secret ballots and regular elections-serves as one of the main mechanism through which public opinion is expressed. A free press according to Mill and Bentham could also scrutinise the workings of power and bureaucracy, and prevent the corruption of legislators and administrators. Mill was critical of utilitarianism for placing necessity before truth in the discussion of opinion. He argued that freely circulating opinions are essential for the seeking of truth. He singled out a number of reasons why silencing opinion could have consequences for the search for the true. First, it is not possible to be absolutely certain that any opinion is false. To suppress an opinion is to assume the infallibility of one’s own position and deny potential truth. Second, even if an opinion is false it can contain an element of truth. The prevailing opinion on any matter cannot be the whole truth and it is only by confronting contrary opinion, by reconciling opposites, that we can attain the full truth. Truth would degenerate into dogma and prejudice if not continually challenged into question by counter-claims.

According to Theory Uses and Gratifications (U and G), media effects assumed the audience brought their own needs and desires to the process of making sense of media messages. Needs and desires structured how messages are received and understood by the audience. The focus shifted from what the media do to people to what people do with the media. First assumption of U and G is people actively use the media for their own purposes; second, people know what these purpose are and can articulate them, and third, despite the variations between individuals in their use of the media, it is possible to identify some basic patterns in U and G. Researchers noted that different programs or media forms are used in different ways depending on the individual. Ostensibly trivial programs can be used for serious purpose, for example quiz shows could be used to improve general knowledge and serious programs can be used for “unserious” reason-for example, being interest in what a newscaster is wearing. One of the major findings of this research is the unpredictability of U and G as people may use programs in a number of quite unexpected ways.

In the 1999 election, the opposition had fully utilized the potential of Internet to their advantage and this has contributed to the changing political landscape. A Malaysian media critic had observed that “the popularity of the Internet has certainly soared over the last few years particularly with the active use by people who support, sympathize with, or simply curious of the so-called “Reformation” movement that had sparked by the outstanding of Anwar Ibrahim”.  Prior to the 1999 election, newer websites were established with the primary aim of raising the consciousness among voters, particularly the younger ones, about the many issue of the day. If in the past deliberate cover-up of certain issues initiated by the mainstream media often went unnoticed, now such attempts not only could arouse suspicion, but also enchant public interest in the issue concerned. Voters in all categories received a great deal of their information and influence directly from people. Certain well-informed members of families, neighborhoods, and peer tended to be opinion leaders, who kept up on media reports and tended to be sought out by others as sources of information. Opinion leaders thus created what the researchers called a two-step flow of communication: Ideals, they said, “often from radio and print to the opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of the population. Rodman (2009) today, researchers accept a mixed-effect model, which predicts that sometimes media will have powerful effects, sometimes minimal effects, and sometimes depending on a complex variety of contingencies-a mixture of powerful and minimal effect.

REFERENCES

Ezhar Tamam. (1996). Peranan majalah FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW,

ASIAWEEK, dan The Economist dalam pembangunan di Malaysia: Analisis kandungan liputan tahun 1993-1994. In Mohd Nizam Osman, Siti Zobidah Omar, Hamisah Hassan and Narimah Ismail, 2008; Dimension of communication: Malaysia Experience. Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang.

 

George Rodman. (2009). Mass media in a changing world: History, industry, controversy

(2nd Ed). McGraw Hill.

 

Naab, T., Moehring, W. and Scherer, H. (2007). Freedom of religion and freedom of speech:

Two Basic human rights in conflict. Paper presented at the International Communication Association.

Slade, C. (2005). A critique of active audience studies: The audience as political participants

in alternative media. Paper presented at the International Communication Association of New York.

 

Wicks,R.H. (2005). Message framing and constrating meaning : An emerging paradigm in

mass communication research. In Kalbflesisch, P.J. Communication Year Book 29. Lawarence Erlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the mass media perspective, have two types of audience which is the passive audience and the active audience. But sometimes, they maybe act both of these types. So, in discuss this both type of the audience, I have pick up the difference theory to explained how their style can give the powerful effects to mass media or by their attitudes make the mass media have the limited impact on them. Lots of theory that has been discussed on passive audience, and state that people are easily influenced by the media. While active audience concept can be viewed as a theory that focuses on accessing what people do with media. This concept said that the people make more active decisions about how to use the media (Stephen W. Littlejohn and Karen A. Foss, 2008). For that reason, this concept can be referred to as audience-centered rather than source dominated. Baran and Davis (2006) suggested that this concept should be looked under micro level perspective rather than macro level perspective. These ideas of audience are associated with various theories of media effects. The powerful effects theories tend to be based on passive audience, whereas the minimal effect theories are based more on an active audience.

During the 1970s and 1980s, more researchers became increasingly focused on media audience. Most of them focus to gain more useful understanding of what people do with the media in their daily lives. As this research develop, new and less pessimistic conceptualization of audience began to develop. Empirical researcher start to reexamined limited-effect assumption about audience and argued that people were not as passive as these effects theory assumed (Baran and Davis, 2006).

Media audience is a group of people who participate in an experience or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music or academics in any medium. Audience members participate in different ways in different kinds of art; some events invite overt audience participation and others allowing only modest clapping and criticism and reception. Media audiences are studied by academics in media audience studies. Audience theory also offers scholarly insight into audiences in general. Early research into media audiences was dominated by the debate about ‘media effects’, in particular the link between screen violence and real-life aggression. Several moral panics fuelled the claims, such as the incorrect presumptions that Rambo had influenced Michael Robert Ryan to commit the Hungerford massacre, and that Child’s Play 3 had motivated the killers of James Bulger In the 1990s, David Gauntlett published critiques on media ‘effects’, most notably the “Ten things wrong with the media effects model” article (George Rodman, 2009) .

Active audience was define as the audience for a media product, seen not as accepting a product as it is presented to them, but as interpreting, interacting with and using it for their own agenda. Frank Biocca (in Littlejohn, 1999) (in George Rodman, 2009) discussed five characteristic of the active audience implied by the theorist. The first is selectivity. Active audiences are considered to be selective in the media they choose to use. The second characteristic is utilitarianism. Active audience are said to use media to meet particular need and goals. The third is intentionality, which implies the purposeful use of media content. The fourth characteristic is involvement, or effort. Here audiences are actively attending, thinking about, and using the media. The last characteristic is impervious to influence, or not very easily persuaded by the media alone.

According to U and G, media effects assumed the audience brought their own needs and desires to the process of making sense of media messages. Needs and desires structured how messages are received and understood by the audience. Theory U and G was the first to champion the cause of “the active audience”. It shifted the emphasis from what the media do to people and placed the issue of what people do with the media. U and G state the audience as more active in the decision to watch television and what to watch. Kartz, Blumler, and Gurevitch (1974)(in Saodah Wok, Narimah Ismail and Mohd. Yusof Hussain, 2005) described five elements of the U and G. First, the audience is conceived of as active, an important part of mass media use is assumed to be goal directed. Second, in the mass communication process much initiative in linking need gratification and media choice lies with the audience member. Third, the media compete with other sources of need satisfaction. Fourth, many goals of mass media use be derived from data supplied by individuals themselves, they can report their interest and movies. Lastly, value judgments about the cultural significance of mass communication should be suspended while audience orientations are explored.

Besides that, information Processing Theory also used to describe and interpret how each of us take in and makes sense of the flood of information our senses encounter every moment of each day. It assumes that individuals are active in operate with certain built-in information-handling capacities and strategies. Each day we are exposed to cast quantities of sensory information. We filter this information so only a small portion of it ever reaches our conscious mind. Only a tiny fraction of this information is singled out for attention and processing, and we finally store a tiny amount of this in long-term memory. We are not so much information handlers as information avoiders-we have developed sophisticated mechanisms for screening out irrelevant or useless information.

Passive audiences usually had received information with little or no effort on their part. The audience is passive in the receiving and interpretation of media. Based on that statement, Noelle-Neumann (1981) (Shirley Biagi, 1999) introduced her spiral of silence concept to support the powerful of media. She argued that her perspective involves a “return to the concept of powerful mass media”. She wrote, “as regards the connection between selective perception and the effect of the mass media, one can put forward the hypothesis that the more restricted the selection the less the reinforcement principle applies, in other words the greater the possibility of mass media changing attitudes”. She contends people who feel they are a minority opinion remain silent, thereby reinforcing or enlarging the majority position. These people take a silent stance on an issue. Their silence result in a kind of contagion of silence among others who share the minority view; and this ever-spiraling or enlarging silence plays into the hands of the vocal majority. The mass media exert great influence and have powerful effects because publicize which opinion they consider important and give clues to the public about opinion people can talk about or advocate without becoming isolated. The media, because of a variety of factors, tend to present one sides of an issue to the exclusion of others, which further encourages those people to keep quiet and makes it even tougher for the media to uncover and register that opposing viewpoint. Once a spiral of silence is initiated, the magnitude of media influence will increase to higher levels over time. Spiral of silence theory argues that media can have a powerful influence on everyday talk; this was linked with the concept passive audience. Media can literally silence public discourse on certain topics by declaring them to be settled in favor of one or another.

Besides that, Habermas (1962) (in John C. Merrill, John lee and Edward Jay Friendlander, 1994), gave a unique explanation of the social structure and the audience in it. Within his concepts of the “public sphere”, the residents consume the culture and information and the audience is portrayed as a member of the society, who participates in the exchange of ideas. Even though this audience participation was interpreted as bringing “degeneration in the quality of discourse” (Calhoun, 1993) (in John C. Merrill, John lee and Edward Jay Friendlander, 1994), his glimpse of the “audience activeness in participation” plays a role in connecting critical theory, which focuses more on the passive audience under fundamental economic determinism, to cultural studies, which regard the audience as more active within the extensive structure of the society. Critical theory’s main focus is on economic determinism, in which capitalistic power controls the mass media ownership and its messages, and in turn, controls the audience’s perception and activity. The audience is not regarded as being as important as the mass communicator, but is treated as a side issue in the mass communication process.

In Malaysian, the issues about media violence especially on the television programs and the impacts on children’s behaviour it’s always being discuss among the society and academician. The study about these issues was started from 1950’s until now. It’s become more critical when a lot of improvement have on media technology, especially on the content. This is because, the technology is always developed. Most people do not believe that media violence has had any a negative effect on them. In public opinion polls, typically 88% of people say that the media have not affected them personally (Whiteman, 1996; in W. James Potter, 2003).

But, in reality the media continually and profoundly affect everyone, and when the messages are violent, people are at risk for a variety of negative effects. Basically people do not perceive these negative effects happening to them in their everyday lives, not because those effects don’t exist, but because people do not know what to look for as evidence of the effects. Schramm and his associates reported that children were exposed to television more than to any other mass medium (Shirley Biagi, 1999).  In Malaysian context media violent bring the huge impact to our society development.

According to Orestes (2002), media violent is a major problem threatens the harmony of family life. According to him, many media spread the mistaken notion that sex, pornography, porno-actions, violence, terrorism extreme and wild life, all of these aside from culture and religion. He also found, reflecting the influence of irresponsible media lead to moral standards in the Asian youth is declining, 20% of teenagers involved with adultery, 24% were involved with pornography and porno-actions, 21% sex before marriage and 35% of juvenile cases. All this will lead to teen more problematic and involves the breach of discipline problems at school very significant.

According to Amir Hassan Dawi (2002), films, newspapers, magazines, novels, books, internet, interactive media and television to highlight the culture of yellow has been a problem in changing the behaviour of physical, verbal, nonverbal,
antisocial and crime among students. He reported that the sex scenes and violent action seen in the media that will make young minds hard and greedy. He also stated that this matter cannot be denied because their average age between 12 to 20 years of age is a stage is still considered raw. At this stage, students easily stimulated because they are in the process of change to natural puberty. Thus they will aggression that was adapted to use information to media practiced in their daily behaviour.

Violent programs in the media as well as imitation of behaviour problems
persistent to the teenagers (Ralph, 1999). According to him, when many violent and behaviour that aired in the media with easily influenced and imitated by the children and adolescents. These issues become even worse what if the parents knowingly make a media a place to escape from educating children as fatigue factor, career and finding sources of income (Rogers, 1980) (in Rosly kayar, 2007). Thus, character building children depend on viewing and simple materials found in the media. This will cause teenagers to make the material as a medium for viewing learn something and then practiced in life. Consequently, violent treatment of pleasure and in accordance with the instinct of youth will be the main mechanisms of adolescent attitudes and behaviour. Thus, the adolescent will be more wild and vulnerable violent activities (Baron, 1973) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007).  This entire technological advance occurred simultaneously with profound alterations in Malaysian society. Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis (2009) state, the new social landscape took shape at precisely the same time that the new mass medium arrived. So, after the rapid social change in the Malaysia especially, the serious social problem also had the rapid rise.

Based on that situation, in my opinion audiences in Malaysia was an active audience. To relate these issues with my statement, I have chosen the Uses and Gratification Theory by Bumler dan Katz in 1974 to understand more how the communication technology advancement will be effect the children’s, and also its will answer why I said the audience perspective in Malaysia is active audience. In the Uses and Gratification Theory, active audience from the violent media site, can be described as how the teenagers used the variety way to achieved their satisfaction by using television.

This theory emphasizes the willingness of consumers and not the content of the message. Media is considered as a way to meet the needs of the audience and the audience is assumed to be active. While Saodah Wok, Narimah Ismail and Mohd Yusof Hussain (2005) states this theory can explain why some of the contents of television are not watched by the audience. Maybe it does not interest them or do not have the required information. This theory also explains how the individual characteristics of the different character of the television media channels to satisfy the requirements and to solve problems. Certain individuals, especially teenagers have different goals to support treatment.

According to Rice and Williams (1984) (in Sobhi Mohd Ishak, 2003), the emergence of new media is the best field to test the various theories and models. One of the theories that the media are often used to analyze new media Uses and Gratification theory is the requirement. Other than Rice and Williams, several other researchers are also using this theory as a reference for research on mass media such as Williams, Strover and Grant (1996) (in Sobhi Mohd Ishak, 2003). As the theory relating to “active audience”, Uses and Gratification Theory of the Will provides perspective on how audiences respond to new media-rich information resources.

The active audience can be seen in this issues when the audience watch the violent content on the media like television, they have the tendency to behave or talk like what they watch without realizing what they had follow is negative or positive. So this action can be considered as active audience. This because, they watch the media content, then they practices on their live. From their act they would change the perspective of media in terms of carrying the message to give the information.  For example, the results of the present widespread television exposure, exposure to sex is also becoming more numerous and easier to achieve. This is because, when television was accepted and became an important part of daily life, daily life styles and values of Asian culture are also changing. Various cultural influences from outside had been absorbed into our cultural and was accepted easily.

But, according to Rubin (1984) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007), the level of activity differs according to a range of possible orientations in the communication process. The choice of exposure to television does not infer the level of activity—either passive or active. An individual is likely to be passive and active at different points, at times actively choosing the medium (or another technology), and at other times choosing the medium because it is accessible or a habit. Thus, it is logical to conclude that both individual and structural variables should have an impact on the choice of television.

Phillip Palmgreen, Lawrence Wenner and Karl Rosengren (1985) (Rosly Kayar, 2007), studies have shown that a variety of audience gratifications are related to a wide spectrum of media effects, including knowledge, dependency, attitudes, perceptions of social reality, agenda setting, discussion, and various political effects variables. Researchers noted that different programs or media forms are used in different ways depending on the individual. Ostensibly trivial programs can be used for serious purpose, for example quiz shows could be used to improve general knowledge and serious programs can be used for “unserious” reason-for example, being interest in what a newscaster is wearing. One of the major findings of this research is the unpredictability of U and G as people may use programs in a number of quite unexpected ways.

In other words, nowadays mass media audience in Malaysia is active, as depicted in the uses and gratification theory of the empirical. Kartz, Gurevitch, and Haas (1973) (in Rosly Kayar, 2007) put the needs of media into five categories. First, needs related to strengthening information, knowledge, and understanding: cognitive needs. For example, watching the local news to find out how to dress for tomorrow’s weather provides knowledge. Second, needs related to strengthening aesthetic, pleasurable, or emotional experience: affective needs. For example, a Harry potter fan pre-orders the next book in the series in order to enjoy Harry’s adventures as soon as possible. Third, needs related to strengthening credibility, confidence, stability, and status: these combine cognitive and affective needs and are known as personal integrative needs. Some women report that advice from Oprah makes them feel stronger as they face their own problems. Students read trade journals prior to job interviews, so they increase their confidence when fielding question about the industry. Fourth, needs related to strengthening contacts with family, friends, and the world: social integrative needs. For many years, groups of college students gathered in the  dorm’s television lounge on Thursday to watch Grey Anatomy- the experience of being together was as important as watching the program. Many sports fans also develop rituals of watching the games in groups or talking about the game in person, over the phone, and even via sports talk radio. Lastly, needs related to escape and tension-release, which weaken contact with self and social roles. Students frequently report that they watch late-night comedy shows such as The Daily Show or The Golbert Report to unwind before bedtime at the end of the end of a stressful day. Mass media audience in Malaysia are more active in their participation, specifically in “collective action.” In short, they are not only active in critical thinking but also in participation. We are witnessing such an audience group. Their “response” does not stay at the individual level but goes further to become collective activism for or against media content. They even attempt to shape the content of the mass media. This personality sometimes develops into a collective social movement in the real world. Sampedro (2000) (in W. James potter, 2003) wrote, “Many social movements aim to influence policy agendas by defining new social problems through media coverage of their protest activities. Instead of negotiating, social movements tend to ‘display’ protest activities”.

REFERNCES

Amir Hasan Dawi (2002). Penteorian sosiologi dan pendidikan. Tanjung Malim:

Quantum Books.

 

Cooper, R. and Tang, T. (2009). Predicting audience exposure to television in today’s media

environment: An empirical integration of active-audience and structural theories. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53 (3), 400-418.

 

George Rodman. (2009). Mass media in a changing world: History, industry, controversy

(2nd Ed). McGraw Hill.

 

John C. Merrill, John Lee and Edward Jay Friendlander. (1994). Modern mass media (2nd

Ed.). HarperCollins college Publishers.

 

Lee, G. (2005). Not only a critical thinker, but also an active participant. Paper presented at

the International Communication Association of New York.

 

Mohd Sobhi Ishak. (2003). Penggunaan dan pemuasan kehendak terhadap world wide web

(www) dalam kalangan pelajar Universiti Utara Malaysia. FBMK, UPM Serdang (tidak diterbitkan)

Orestes, P. M. (2002). Song to avoid after the tragedy. London: Sage Publication.

Philo, G. (2008). Active audience and the construction of public knowledge. Journalism

Studies, 9(4), 535-544.

 

Ralph, E. C. (1999). Audience effects when viewing aggression movies. British

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Rosly Kayar. (2007). Kelangsangan dalam media dan kesannya terhadap tingkahlaku agresif

pelajar. Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor.

 

Saodah Wok, Narimah Ismail and Mohd. Yusof Hussain. (2005). Teori-teori komunikasi.

PTS Professional; Publishing Sdn. Bhd.

 

Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis. (2006). Mass communication theory: Foundations,

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Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis. (2009). Mass communication theory: Foundations,

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Shirley Biagi. (1999). Media/Impact: An introduction to mass media (4th Ed.). Wadsworth

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Entertainment-education

PAST RESEARCH FINDING

A study conducted by Liesener and Mills (1999) conclude that sources from everyday life are most effective in changing the way people communicate and act with the disabled. They explores whether or not a physically disabled person would be spoken to like a child. In their study, college students gave directions over an intercom to different people, after seeing the photos of each person they were addressing.

Deborah and William (2008), creators of entertainment-education television programs intended to promote pro-social change related to disabilities should (1) focus on producing high quality shows reaching children, youth and adults, (2) add more entertainment appeal to create vigorous interest in viewers to model positive behavior (Brown & Singhal, 1999), (3) integrate communication scholar’s theoretical works and lessons learned with creative artist’s design to develop more effective programming, and (4) produce more television programs which address the issue of disabilities in regions of the world where the disabled are often marginalized, treated poorly and sometimes considered as valueless to society.

An entertainment-education drama is expected to trigger interpersonal communication, especially among spouses and friends, which then influences the adoption of a new health behavior (Vaughan & Rogers,2000; Valente, 1993; Valente et.al., 1994; Lasee & Becker, 1997; Rogers & Kincaid, 1981; Valente et.al.,1996; Valente & Saba,1998; Rogers et.al.,1999). Effects of entertainment-education messages on verbal behavior change, meanwhile, have been found to be minimal in some studies but considerable in a number of others (Rogers,1995; Westoff & Rodriguez, 1995; Rogers et al., 1999).

Kelman (1958) introduced a theory of identification in the early days of television, defining it as a process of persuasion in which a person seeks to adopt the attitudes, beliefs and behavior of another person through actual or perceived relationships. Kelman (1961) described “classical identification” as “attempt to like or actually be the other person”. This type of identification is illustrated by thousands of Elvis Presley impersonators around the world who seek to like Elvis (Fraser & Brown, 2002). Kelman 91961) observed that people imitated others as a way of maintaining a desired relationship to another person or group, explaining, “By saying what the other says, doing what he does, believing what he believes, the individual maintains this relationship and the satisfying self-definition that it provides him”. During the identification process, a person adopts the attitudes and behaviors of another person because he or she actually believes in him or her, and it is not necessary that the object of identification be aware that this process is taking place. Thus, a person can identify with a television character by adopting the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the character through television viewing.

Doubleday & Droege (1993), children, especially preschoolers are tend to have difficulty understanding television content and are likely to “fill in” their incomplete comprehension with stereotypes and familiar scripts taken from their more limited general knowledge of television and the world. Despite the difficulty children encounter in understanding television programs, it has been shown that children who watch constructive educational programs do better in developing pre-reading skills (MacBeth,1996). On the other hand, excessive television viewing may result in the failure to develop crucial social skills, lack of meaningful family interaction, sacrifice of reading time and imaginative physical play, and the faulty expectation that life should deliver easy and instant entertainment (Jason & Hanaway,1997).

Television viewing patterns set in the preschool years are said to snowball as the child gets older and schoolwork becomes harder. Children, who watch informative educational television as preschoolers, tend to watch more informative television as they get older and use television to complement what they learn in school. On the other hand, children who watch more entertainment programs tend to use television more to entertain themselves as they grow older (MacBeth, 1996).

RELATED THEORIES

SOCIAL JUDGMENT THEORY (SJT)

SJT  by Muzafer Sherif & Carl Havland in 1961 is based on the premise that the effect of a persuasive message on a particular issue depends on the way that the receiver evaluates the position that the message puts forth (Keefe,1990). In SJT, each receiver judges the range of alternatives individually and then these judgments can be combined “to reflect the consensus, defined by social norms, prevailing among given people.

Sherif recognized that the thought process of new ideas fell into three zones. The first zone  is known as the latitude of acceptance. Within the latitude of acceptance, there will be one position that represents a receiver’s actual position on the subject, this position is the most acceptable and come closest to that person’s actual point of view. The second zone is that of the latitude of rejection. The latitude of rejection consists of opinions or options that a person finds totally unacceptable. Granberg describes the latitude of rejection as being an option that is regarded as totally unacceptable or undesirable. The final zone known as the latitude of noncommitment. This zone can be described as indifferent. The receiver has been given falls neither in the latitude of acceptance, nor the latitude of rejection. In Iayman’s terms, the latitude of noncommitment states that the receiver is undecided about the option or idea with which he or she has been presented.

These three latitude zones affect one of the biggest portions of the theory, ego-involvement, which represents how important an issue is in your life; it is placed beside the three latitudes because they all support where a person’s stance is on a certain issue and what sort of information they agree or disagree upon. Griffin (1992), since people who are highly ego-involvement in a topic have broad ranges of rejection, most messages aimed to persuade then are in danger of actually driving them future away. O’Keefe (1990), in a crisis situation, the latitude of non-commitment virtually disappears, and the person either accepts or rejects any attitude toward the topic.

SJT use the idea of cause-effect relationships with its idea of attitude change. Attitude change depends upon how persuasive the speakers message is and how it will fail in the listeners latitudes. The idea that the greater the disagreement with the speaker, the more the listener will adjust their attitude. According to the SJT, as soon as we placed a topic within out latitude of acceptance, we allow a partial attitude shift to allow for the input of the newly heard information.

SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY (SCT)

SCT by Bandura focuses on how children and adults operate cognitively on their social experiences and how these cognitions then influence behaviour and development ( Bandura, 1986). SCT which posits that individuals can learn by observing and imitating or modelling others in real life or television programme. Bandura introduced several other important concepts, including reciprocal determinism, self-efficacy, and the idea that there can be a significant temporal variation in time-lapse between cause and effect. The SCT ‘s strong emphasis on one’s cognitions suggests that the mind is an active force that constructs one’s reality, selectively encodes information, performs behavior on the basis of values and expectations, and imposes structure on its own actions (Jones, 1989).

The SCT explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1986, 1999, 2001). SCT acquisition of complex behaviours on a triangular diagram illustrating the interactive effect of various factors. Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, person and behaviour. Environment refers to the factors that can affect a person’s behaviour. There are social and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for understanding behaviour (Parraga, 1990). The situation refers to the cognitive or mental representations of the environment that may affect a person’s behaviour. The situation is a person’s perception of the place, time, physical features and activity (Glanz et al., 2002). These three factors are constantly influencing each other. Behaviour is not simply the result of the environment and the person, just as the environment is not simply the result of the person and behaviour (Glanz et al, 2002). The environment provides models for behavior. Observational learning occurs when a person watches the actions of another person and the reinforcements that the person receives (Bandura, 1999). The concept of behaviour can be viewed in many ways. Behavioral capability means that if a person is to perform a behaviour he must know what the behaviour is and have the skills to perform it. The component processes underlying observational learning are: (a) attention, including modeled events and observer characteristics, (b) retention, (c) motor reproduction, and (d) motivation. Because it encompasses attention, memory and motivation, SCT spans both cognitive and behavioral frameworks.

 

REFERENCES

Deborah, S., William, B. (2008). Effect Of A Children’s Entertainment-Education Television Program In Nepal On Beleiefs And Behavior Toward People With Disabilities. National Communication Association.

Elizabeth, M., Katelyn, B. (2008). Move Over And Make Room For Meeka’ : The Representation On Race, Otherness And Indigeneity On The Austratian Children’s Television Programme Play School. Disource : Studies In The Cultural Politics of Education, Vol. 29 Issue 2, p273-288. doi : 10.1080/01596300801967011

Kempton, F., Alani, A. and Chapman, K. (2003) Surveyor Variability-Application Of Social Judgment Theory. Struktural Survey, Vol 21, p63-69.

Mai P, D., Lawrence, K. (2005). Impact Of Entertainment-Education Television Drama In Bangladesh : An Application Of Propensity Score Matching. International Communication Association, p1-39.

Smith, S. W., Atkin, C. K., Martell, D., Allen, R., Hembroff, L. (2006). A Social Judgment Theory Approach To Conducting Formative Research In A Social Norms Cmpaign. Communication Theory, p141-152. Internation Association. doi : 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00009.x