A study conducted by Liesener and Mills (1999) conclude that sources from everyday life are most effective in changing the way people communicate and act with the disabled. They explores whether or not a physically disabled person would be spoken to like a child. In their study, college students gave directions over an intercom to different people, after seeing the photos of each person they were addressing.

Deborah and William (2008), creators of entertainment-education television programs intended to promote pro-social change related to disabilities should (1) focus on producing high quality shows reaching children, youth and adults, (2) add more entertainment appeal to create vigorous interest in viewers to model positive behavior (Brown & Singhal, 1999), (3) integrate communication scholar’s theoretical works and lessons learned with creative artist’s design to develop more effective programming, and (4) produce more television programs which address the issue of disabilities in regions of the world where the disabled are often marginalized, treated poorly and sometimes considered as valueless to society.

An entertainment-education drama is expected to trigger interpersonal communication, especially among spouses and friends, which then influences the adoption of a new health behavior (Vaughan & Rogers,2000; Valente, 1993; Valente, 1994; Lasee & Becker, 1997; Rogers & Kincaid, 1981; Valente,1996; Valente & Saba,1998; Rogers,1999). Effects of entertainment-education messages on verbal behavior change, meanwhile, have been found to be minimal in some studies but considerable in a number of others (Rogers,1995; Westoff & Rodriguez, 1995; Rogers et al., 1999).

Kelman (1958) introduced a theory of identification in the early days of television, defining it as a process of persuasion in which a person seeks to adopt the attitudes, beliefs and behavior of another person through actual or perceived relationships. Kelman (1961) described “classical identification” as “attempt to like or actually be the other person”. This type of identification is illustrated by thousands of Elvis Presley impersonators around the world who seek to like Elvis (Fraser & Brown, 2002). Kelman 91961) observed that people imitated others as a way of maintaining a desired relationship to another person or group, explaining, “By saying what the other says, doing what he does, believing what he believes, the individual maintains this relationship and the satisfying self-definition that it provides him”. During the identification process, a person adopts the attitudes and behaviors of another person because he or she actually believes in him or her, and it is not necessary that the object of identification be aware that this process is taking place. Thus, a person can identify with a television character by adopting the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the character through television viewing.

Doubleday & Droege (1993), children, especially preschoolers are tend to have difficulty understanding television content and are likely to “fill in” their incomplete comprehension with stereotypes and familiar scripts taken from their more limited general knowledge of television and the world. Despite the difficulty children encounter in understanding television programs, it has been shown that children who watch constructive educational programs do better in developing pre-reading skills (MacBeth,1996). On the other hand, excessive television viewing may result in the failure to develop crucial social skills, lack of meaningful family interaction, sacrifice of reading time and imaginative physical play, and the faulty expectation that life should deliver easy and instant entertainment (Jason & Hanaway,1997).

Television viewing patterns set in the preschool years are said to snowball as the child gets older and schoolwork becomes harder. Children, who watch informative educational television as preschoolers, tend to watch more informative television as they get older and use television to complement what they learn in school. On the other hand, children who watch more entertainment programs tend to use television more to entertain themselves as they grow older (MacBeth, 1996).



SJT  by Muzafer Sherif & Carl Havland in 1961 is based on the premise that the effect of a persuasive message on a particular issue depends on the way that the receiver evaluates the position that the message puts forth (Keefe,1990). In SJT, each receiver judges the range of alternatives individually and then these judgments can be combined “to reflect the consensus, defined by social norms, prevailing among given people.

Sherif recognized that the thought process of new ideas fell into three zones. The first zone  is known as the latitude of acceptance. Within the latitude of acceptance, there will be one position that represents a receiver’s actual position on the subject, this position is the most acceptable and come closest to that person’s actual point of view. The second zone is that of the latitude of rejection. The latitude of rejection consists of opinions or options that a person finds totally unacceptable. Granberg describes the latitude of rejection as being an option that is regarded as totally unacceptable or undesirable. The final zone known as the latitude of noncommitment. This zone can be described as indifferent. The receiver has been given falls neither in the latitude of acceptance, nor the latitude of rejection. In Iayman’s terms, the latitude of noncommitment states that the receiver is undecided about the option or idea with which he or she has been presented.

These three latitude zones affect one of the biggest portions of the theory, ego-involvement, which represents how important an issue is in your life; it is placed beside the three latitudes because they all support where a person’s stance is on a certain issue and what sort of information they agree or disagree upon. Griffin (1992), since people who are highly ego-involvement in a topic have broad ranges of rejection, most messages aimed to persuade then are in danger of actually driving them future away. O’Keefe (1990), in a crisis situation, the latitude of non-commitment virtually disappears, and the person either accepts or rejects any attitude toward the topic.

SJT use the idea of cause-effect relationships with its idea of attitude change. Attitude change depends upon how persuasive the speakers message is and how it will fail in the listeners latitudes. The idea that the greater the disagreement with the speaker, the more the listener will adjust their attitude. According to the SJT, as soon as we placed a topic within out latitude of acceptance, we allow a partial attitude shift to allow for the input of the newly heard information.


SCT by Bandura focuses on how children and adults operate cognitively on their social experiences and how these cognitions then influence behaviour and development ( Bandura, 1986). SCT which posits that individuals can learn by observing and imitating or modelling others in real life or television programme. Bandura introduced several other important concepts, including reciprocal determinism, self-efficacy, and the idea that there can be a significant temporal variation in time-lapse between cause and effect. The SCT ‘s strong emphasis on one’s cognitions suggests that the mind is an active force that constructs one’s reality, selectively encodes information, performs behavior on the basis of values and expectations, and imposes structure on its own actions (Jones, 1989).

The SCT explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1986, 1999, 2001). SCT acquisition of complex behaviours on a triangular diagram illustrating the interactive effect of various factors. Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, person and behaviour. Environment refers to the factors that can affect a person’s behaviour. There are social and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for understanding behaviour (Parraga, 1990). The situation refers to the cognitive or mental representations of the environment that may affect a person’s behaviour. The situation is a person’s perception of the place, time, physical features and activity (Glanz et al., 2002). These three factors are constantly influencing each other. Behaviour is not simply the result of the environment and the person, just as the environment is not simply the result of the person and behaviour (Glanz et al, 2002). The environment provides models for behavior. Observational learning occurs when a person watches the actions of another person and the reinforcements that the person receives (Bandura, 1999). The concept of behaviour can be viewed in many ways. Behavioral capability means that if a person is to perform a behaviour he must know what the behaviour is and have the skills to perform it. The component processes underlying observational learning are: (a) attention, including modeled events and observer characteristics, (b) retention, (c) motor reproduction, and (d) motivation. Because it encompasses attention, memory and motivation, SCT spans both cognitive and behavioral frameworks.



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